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Day 5

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EVER EVER EVER Motto DivderDay 5

 

Day 5 - Using “Memory Links” to determine the validity of a statement. A “Memory Link”, links the writer’s memory to their words. It is the only true way to get inside the writer’s head, to let us know what they saw, what they heard, or what they did. If it is not there, then they didn’t see it, hear it, or do it, and from their lack of honesty and commitment, we’ll find their dishonesty. A "Memory Link" is information that may seem "Unnecessary" to the reader. However, it is very “necessary” for the writer who included it in the statement. A "Memory Link" indicates that a particular piece of information came from the writer’s memory; they should be considered very important; as they are quite specific, and a strong indication of truthfulness. More on this as we continue… The Writer’s "Personal Perspective" Looking closely at a statement for the writer’s perspective or better yet, “from” the writer perspective, checking it out from their “point-of-view” with their stated actions can tell us a lot. It can also go a long way toward verifying what they state as being truthful or deceptive. In one case the writer said, “I went to the back door and heard Tony tell someone to leave our yard”. Here we have a “Memory Link” The writer could have just as easily started off by saying, “Tony told someone to leave our yard” or "I heard Tony tell someone to leave our yard" She didn't need to tell us she was at the back door, in fact, her entire statement could have started at the point where she joined Tony and Stave on at the front door. But she added this unnecessary information; Why? Because, this information is most likely linked to her memory; she was most likely at the back door, when Tony ( at the front door ) told someone to leave their yard. Compare this information to other parts of her statement, when she later says, “Tony was at the front door with Steve and some guy, I went to the front door to see what was going on. While I was there the guy said, he knows where we live, and Tony told him to get off of our property, the guy hit Tony and Tony told Steve to call 911Notice: The writer’s “Language Change” matches the change in the writer’s “Personal Perspective”. First, as we already mentioned; we can say that the line, “I went to the back door” is a "Memory Link", it may seem unimportant to us. However, it comes from the writer's memory and therefore serves to strengthen the validity of the writer’s statement. It is a “Memory Link” and as we already know, "the truth comes from memory". It is also worth noting that truthful statements are full of what seems to be "unimportant information" or "Memory Links" Now we’ll compare the writer’s “Personal Perspective” to the writer’s “Memory Link” and we’ll see that while she was at the back door, she said, “I went to the back door and HEARD Tony tell someone to leave our yard” When she went to the front door, she said, “I went to the front door to see what was going on. While I was there the guy said, he knows where we live, and Tony TOLD him to get out of our yard… the guy hit Tony, and Tony TOLD Steve to call 911” With the “Memory Links”, “Language Changes” and the “Personal Perspectives” checked, it becomes obvious that the writer could only HEAR Tony’s orders from the back door, however, while she was with Tony her perspective changed; she no longer just HEARD him give the orders, but because she was with him, she saw him give orders, this changed her Personal Perspective, and when her perspective changed, her language changed to suit. Not only does this serve to justify her “Language Changes”, but it also goes a long way toward verifying her statement. The justification and verification comes by comparing her “Memory Links” and her “Language Changes”, to her “Personal Perspectives” Try finding any “Memory Links”, “Language Changes” and “Personal Perspectives” that might appear in this case: At approximately 9:30, Me and a girl were walking back from Jim's confectionary. The guy we were with was still in the store and said he would catch up with us later. The girl approached us, and said," Hey, Hey guys what u doing." She had then pulled out a really sharp silver knife. She had told us to empty are pockets and give all are stuff to her. Me and the other chick did. I had cigarettes, Scotia bank card school photo ID and a lighter in one pocket, In the other I had 2 lip glosses and $40.00. I went through the pocket with my Scotia card in it and only took out the lighter, and said that was all I had in that pocket, and I zipped my pocket back up. She then told me to empty the other one, but pushed my hand away, and she stuck her hand in my pocket, taking everything I had in there except my school photo ID. She turned to the other girl and told her to empty her pockets She did, and the girl took about $30.00 and her pop. She then pulled the other girl by her and told her not to go to the cops or she'll come back and beat us/kill us. email your observations to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 


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At this point in your training I’d like you to look over the following statements and email your observations to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
Statements / Class or Email assignment


Case #1

Statements # 1 - 2 The first is a statement written by the father in a suspected child abuse case, which reads as follows:


Statement # 1

I was getting ready to go to work when I leaned down to give my daughter a kiss good-bye and a pat on the head as I do every day before I go to work. While touching her head, I felt a soft spot I looked to see what it was and found a bruise. I immediately contacted the doctor. And now I’m here with you.” The second, written by the mother of the child, reads as follows:

Statement # 2 "My Husband was getting ready to go to work when he leaned down to give the baby a kiss good-bye and a pat on the head as he does every day before he goes to work. While touching her head, he felt the soft spot he looked to see what it was and found the bruise. We immediately contacted the doctor. And now I’m here with you.” At first glance, it looks as though there are no clues and no differences. However, these statements are different and from them, it is obvious who assaulted the child. Your first assignment… Who assaulted the child? and why? Case #2

Statement # 3 The victim of a robbery gave this statement: “I was near the front counter when the man came in he asked for change for a ten so he could get cigarettes from the machine. I opened the register to get the change and he pulled out the gun. He asked for all the money in the register, after he took all the money from the register he asked if there was any more money, I was scared for my life. So, I told him about the money in the safe. We went to the safe I told him I was nervous so I couldn’t get the safe opened he said he’s not playing with me open the safe. So, I did and I gave him all the money. He hit me in the head and left and that’s when I called the police.” Is this statement truthful or deceptive? Why do you think so? Case #3

Statements # 4 -5 In these last two statements, although the writers wrote almost the same things, we can tell who committed the crime by looking at what was said.

 

Statement #4

The first statement, written by someone named Bill, reads as follows: “I came back from the bank, told Rob about the missing deposits and started looking all over the store for the deposits/receipts. I checked the shelves and counters while Rob checked the trash


Statement #5 The second statement, written by Rob, reads as follows: “
Bill came back from the bank, told me about the missing deposits and we started looking all over the store for the deposits/receipts. We even looked in the trash but the money was nowhere to be found” Investigations like this are more common than you might think. It is a case where the prime suspects are pointing the fingers at each other. The important thing to know is that there are only two suspects. This means that by a simple process of elimination, both writers know who did it. One knows who it was because he himself did it. The other knows who it was because he didn’t do it. Therefore, to solve this case, we should look to see which writer is trying to create distance from the other writer and clear him. Simply put, if these statements were written by you and me, and I stole something but then didn’t admit to it, then in a sense, I’d be blaming you by a process of elimination. However, knowing you really didn’t do anything, I would hold no personal resentment against you. On the other hand, because you knew I took something and blamed it on you, you would be very distant from me. Looking for closeness here will give us our suspect. Case #4

Statement #6

Part 1

1.I opened the door around 7:50 am on Mon. Sept. 27 at
2.
3421 Belair Rd. - Goodwill Store. Turned off the alarm, hit
3.
the lights and cleared the registers. Went to the back
4.
to punch in, couldn’t find my time card ran upstairs to
5.
look for it, heard the back doorbell. Ran downstairs to the
6.
basement. Assuming it was one of my employees (frequently
7.
they enter this way) I opened the door. Two young
8.
(light complexions) possibly Hispanic, men stepped in. they
9.
said that they had a gun and to turn around and not
10.
look at them. They then said to open the safe. I
11.
took them to the safe. It is a long combination and I
12.
was scared. The one closest to me said “Bitch don’t play
13.
with me” He had me empty the safe contents into a blue
14.
gym bag. When I started to throw in the change he
15.
called me a stupid bitch and took the bag. During
16.
this the other guy was rustling around behind me
17.
on the table. The guy next to me yelled “leave
18.
that alone” to him. At times they seemed to be
19.
bickering. I don’t know what it was about, I was
20.
too busy praying and thinking of my Mom. When
21.
I finished with the money I turned to hand it
22.
to him and he said “Bitch I said don’t
23.
look at us!” and hit me on both sides of
24.
the face. The guy behind me slapped me on
25.
the forehead. They then duct taped around my
26.
head covering my eyes, pushed me into the bathroom
27.
told me to sit and duct taped my hands behinds
28.
my back and to the stall closed the door and
29.
left.

Bonus Statement #6

Part 2

1.This is what I can recall about them:
2. 1)
they may have been standing in front of the
3.
pawn shop when I came in
4. 2)
Hispanic looking
5. 3)
The one who did most of the talking is the
6.
taller of the two. About 5’8” - 5’9”, slim
7.
may have had a thin mustache
8. 4)
The smaller one - 5’7”, stocky wearing lot’s
9.
of cologne and a baseball cap
10.
Both had on dark clothes, they looked
11.
like brothers, 17, 18 or 19yrs. Old
12.
I never saw a gun but
13.
as we walked up the steps they pointed
14.
something into my back which they
15.
wanted me to believe was a gun

Class or Online discussion

Send your observations of the previous statements to the following email addresses:


Case # 1
Statement #1
.
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Case # 2

Statement #2. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Case #3
Statement #3
. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Case #4

Statement #4. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Case #5

Statement #5. This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Case #6
Statement #6
. The first thing that needs to be done with this statement is to split it into two parts. The first part is the incident, the second part is where the writer stops talking about the incident and starts talking to the interviewer. In this case, it happens on the 29th line just after the word "Left." ( For the sake of clarity, I separated the statement in advance. ) With the statement split, we should number the lines in the statements down the left-hand margin. With this done, we should mark the statement where the Main Issue begins and again where the main issue ends. Everything before the main issue will be called the First Trivial Issue. Everything after the main issue will be called the Second Trivial Issue.


In Part 1 of Bonus Statement #6, the issues are as follows.


Statement Structure Percentages


The first trivial issue:


From "
I opened the door around 7:50 am on Mon...."
To: "...
they enter this way) I opened the door."


The main issue:


From: "...
Two young..."
To: "...
left."


The second trivial issue:


From:
To:


Line Counts


The total number of lines in the statement is 29.00.


The first trivial issue has 6.75 lines. (=23% of the statement)

The main issue has 22.25 lines. (=77% of the statement)

The second trivial issue has 0.00 lines. (=0% of the statement)


Word Counts


The total number of words in the statement is 284.


The first trivial issue has 72 words. (=25% of the statement)

The main issue has 212 words. (=75% of the statement)

The second trivial issue has 0 words. (=0% of the statement)


As you can see, if we were to use a "Word Count" as opposed to a "Line Count" the numbers would be very close. However, using a “Word Count” is more accurate, because it is less subjective to the analyst. In “Line Counts” we approximate, for example, in this case, the TI-1 was approximated at 6.75 lines. ( the lines could have been estimated anywhere from 6.65 to 6.85, so we say 6.75 ) Now, with “Word Counts” there is no guessing… we know TI-1 has 72 words. The number of words would be the same if you count them, as it was when I counted them. A less subjective count means more reliable outcomes. I strongly recommend using “Word Counts” over “Line Counts”. The only reason I show, both methods is so that you know the differences, and can make your own decision as to which would be best for you.


The structure of this story is wrong. The main issue is too close to the end. Statistics show us that when the main issue exceeds 60% of the total statement, there is a strong chance that deception is present in the statement. In fact, the higher the percentage of the statement is in the main issue, the higher the percentage is that the statement is deceptive.

Said vs. Told

 

Line #9 “They said that they had a gun
Line #10 “
They then said to open they safe
Line #12 “
said “bitch don’t play with me
Line #15 “
he called me a stupid bitch
Line #18 “
yelled, “leave that alone
Line #22 “
he said, 'Bitch I said don’t look at us' Generally speaking, the word told is for a strong tone of voice (such as an order), while the word said is for a softer tone (such as a simple statement or request). It is unexpected that a robbery suspect would only request the money as opposed to demanding it. Moreover, at a point just before striking the victim to say, “Bitch I said, don’t look at us” is simply not as strong as, “Bitch, I told you not to look at us.” Lack of the possessive pronoun my Lines #23-24 “and hit me on both sides of the face
Lines #24-25 “
the guy behind me slapped me on the forehead” The writer said “the head” and “the forehead” not “my head” and “my forehead," as might be expected. Lack of the possessive pronoun my where it would normally be expected to occur shows a lack of commitment, which tends to indicate that deception may be present in the statement. Changes in language involving the word MONEY used by tellers Line # 13 “the safe contents
Line # 14 “
the change
Line # 21 “
the money” In these three lines, the writer is referring to the deposits. Usually, people who deal with money (e.g., bank tellers, cashiers, and the like) don't use the word money. Instead, they use professional language, which deliberately negates the significance of the money as money. One can explain this mental process as helping the person to deal with the fact that he or she handles so much money without having the use of it. However, once someone starts to think about the material in front of him or her as money that should indicate that the person has already crossed a line in his or her mind to perceiving the money as an item, which can be used personally. In this case, the money starts out as “the safe contents” and “the change,” but then ends up as “the money.” This change happens at a point in the statement that her robbery is concluded and she can now consider "the safe contents" or "deposits” as her “money”.


Part 2 of Statement #6


Use of "WE" in a violent crime.


Line #13 “
As WE walked up the steps they pointed


The use of the pronoun WE to describe the victim and suspects in a violent crime once the crime has started, is illegitimate, indicating that deception is present in the statement. The pronoun WE forms a partnership, meaning that the victim is a willing partner. We especially don't expect the writer to refer to herself and the criminal as a mutual we in a violent crime.


Line #12 “
I never saw a gun
Line #15 “
wanted me to believe was a gun


In part 1 of this statement, Line #9, the gun is introduced as “
a gun”. After that point, the gun should have changed to “the gun” or “their gun”; however, it doesn’t -- meaning there wasn’t a gun. The writer even goes out of her way to try to tell us this when she says, “They pointed something into my back which they wanted me to believe was a gun." Her saying, “...they wanted me to believe [it] was a gun” means she didn’t believe it was a gun and if she didn’t believe there was a gun, why should we?


Based on all the deceptive points found in this statement, it is easy to conclude that the writer is in fact, being deceptive and may have created this story to cover a theft - her theft of the deposits from the safe.

Bonus Statement #7

 

I Paula Davis, was driving from Pennsylvania Ave. making a left turn on Wilson Street came to stop sign at Wilson And Division Street. A young black male Said to me my tire were flat, I (Paula Davis, Was shook about the tire, so I gave the Young man the ok to look at the tire. The young man act as if he were Fixing or trying help me out, he then Said I guess you can make it from here. But he notice a red light over the Steering wheel and questioned me about It, and I told him it was my daughters Car. He then said, “I can look at it for you if you step around, so I did step around the passenger side leaving the door open and keys in my left hand. As I notice the young man snatched the keys from me and drove off with excessive speed. My door was opened (passenger side) as he drove off. I then notice we were making a turn on McCulloh St. made a turn on North Ave. (Left). I noticed we arrived on Martin Luther King Blvd. Drove to Baltimore Street making A left turn there. As we drove again Turning on (left turn) to Pulaski St. The young man picked up some friends They began smoking weed-laughing driving On the highway as came to Monroe St. heading where I don't know. This Young man drove me all night with his friends. I asked him to please let me out his response was Bitch I’ll let you out shut the F . . K up. Finally he let me out somewhere on Pratt St. near Baltimore Street. I then screamed Again, give me my car. The young man Drove off with the door open on the Passengerside. I was scared, not able To think weren't able to focus. Then I realized I was near Westside Shopping Center and called the Police and gave a Report. I’ am having nightmares.

Bonus Statement #7

Marked-up

Paula Davis, was driving from Pennsylvania Ave. making a left turn on Wilson Street came to stop sign at Wilson and Division Street. A young black male said ( = soft tone ) to me my tire were ( was? ) flat, I (Paula Davis, was shook about the tire, so ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) I gave the young man the ok to look at the tire. The young man act ( at this point how does she know he was acting ) as if he were ( was? ) fixing or trying help me out, he then said ( = soft tone ) "I guess you can make it from here". But he notice ( present tense ) a red light over the steering wheel and questionedme about it, and TOLD ( = strong tone ) him it was my daughter's car. he then said ( = soft tone ), “I can look at it for you if you step around, so ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) I did step around the passenger side leaving the door open and keys in my left hand. as ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) I notice the young man snatched the keys from me and drove off with excessive speed. my door was opened (passenger side) he drove off. I then notice WE were making a turn on McCulloh St. made a turn on North Ave. (left). I noticed WEarrived ( = a predetermined destination ) on Martin Luther King Blvd. ( missing "WE" or "he" ) drove to Baltimore Street making a left turn there. As ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) WE drove again ( = it has happened before ) turning on (left turn) to Pulaski St. the young man picked up some friends ( she doesn't say whose friends ) they began ( = incomplete act ) smoking weed-laughing driving on the highway as ( missing "we" or "they" ) came to Monroe St. heading where I don’t know ( non-committal ). This ( = closeness ) young man drove me all night with ( = separation ) his friends. ( Notice the closeness between “this” young man and the distance “with” his friends. This could be helpful during the interview ) asked ( = soft tone / a polite request ) him to please let me out his response was "bitch I'll let you out shut the F . . K up." Finally ( unnecessary connection ) he let me out somewhere on Pratt St. near Baltimore Street. I then screamagain ( = it has happened before ), give me my car. The young man drove off with the door open on the passenger side. I was scared, not able to think weren't able to focus. Then I realized I was near Westside Shopping Center and called the Police and gave a report. I am having nightmares.

Bonus Statement #8

4Pm. I went downstairs to meet an associate (KEN) to exchange

money. After I exchanged the money, I requested my
safety deposit box to carry back to my room. I entered
the elevator alone and made my way to my room #1704
once inside the room, I removed the contents of the
box, $35-$40,000, and prepared to work on my weekly
payroll.

 

 

4:15 PM. I received a phone call from Ken informing me the
money exchange was $90.00 short. I exited the room and walked toward the elevators. I noticed two Black males in the common area watching the football game. I turned & pressed the button for the elevator and heard one of them say to the other one, " Come on dog, let’s go." Almost immediately one had walked up behind me and placed the barrel of the gun in my back. He told me to go back to the room, don't give him any trouble. It's not worth taking a bullet over. We walked back to the room, entered the room and they immediately asked where the cash was. The cash was sitting on the table and the gunman asked me where the rest of it was. He then asked me how much it was and I gave him and estimated and he became slightly irate and asked where the rest of it was. I told him that's all it was and he insisted there was more and told me it was not worth dying over. I re-stated that was all of the cash and he finally conceded. At this point, the gunman instructed me to strip down completely naked and step into the bathroom and climb into the tub. the other suspect proceeded to tie me up while the gunman consistently reiterated that it wasn't personal, it had to do with that "faggot on the West Coast," referring to my employer/ producer, Marvin Webster. After I had been tied up, I heard them in the parlor searching for something to put the cash in. The gunman re-entered the bathroom where I was tied up and told me not to move for 20-30 minutes They left the room, I immediately yelled out for them, removed myself from the phone cord & adapter used to tie me locked/ barricaded the door after making sure the were not still in the room and called the hotel operator to report what happened. Hotel security came to my room, took the report and we waited for BPD to arrive.

 

Bonus Statement #8 Marked-Up

4Pm.I went downstairs to meet an associate (KEN) ( when a writer, writes in brackets he is talking directly to the investigator, he is therefore on full alert of your presence. More importantly; here he is removing, in this case “Ken” from his statement, amounting to an improper introduction of “Ken” or a bad relationship. Also, notice it was not “my associate” but “an associate” ) to exchange MONEY. ( The word “MONEY” used by someone that deals with money is out of place and could be considered as stepping over the line ). After ( = unnecessary connection / This sentence could have been said without the word “After” and would have ran just as smoothly. Often unnecessary connections come to replace information and can be associated with missing information ) I exchanged ( Missing “WE”. Considering an “exchange” is something usually done between two people, a “WE” should have been used here. This is another sign that there may be a bad relationship between the writer and “Ken”. This could help during the interview process by playing “Ken” against the writer or visa versa ) the MONEY, requested ( = soft tone ) my safety deposit box to carry back ( = return ) to my room. I entered the elevator alone ( By saying “I entered the elevator alone” he is telling us, there was no one on the elevator with him. this is odd because, in an open statement a writer can only tell us what happened… here he is telling us what didn’t happen… or could it be that he entered the elevator alone but was met by someone else on a different floor ) and made my way to my room #1704 once inside the room, ( here is the first change in language, he just went from calling it “my room” to “the room”. This change takes place before the alleged robbery. Could it be that though he was headed to “his room”… it became “the room” when he got there because he wasn’t alone ) I removed the contents of the box, $35-$40,000, and prepared to work on my weekly payroll.

 

4:15 PM.I received a phone call from Ken informingme the MONEY ( not “our money” ) exchange was $90.00 short. exited ( = missing/sensitive information ) the room ( not “My” room ) and walked toward the elevators. I noticed two Black males in the common area watching the football game. ( “the football game” not “a football game”, this is odd to me because, he is from out of town and he knew “the game” they were watching. If you were in a different city and walked past some people watching football would you say they were watching “a football game” or they were watching “the football game”. If you were into football you might have said, “They were watching “the ravens game” or “the cowboys game” to distinguish the game they were watching. But to call it “the football game” with no distinction as to which game… could they have been supposed to watch “the game” to pass time while waiting for him ) I turned & pressed the button for the elevator and heard one of them say ( = soft tone ) to the other one, "Come on dog, LET’S go." Almost ( Almost ?) immediately one had ( Had ? ) walked up behind me and placed the barrel of the gun ( the barrel / the gun = known barrel / gun ) in my back. He TOLD ( = strong tone ) me to go back ( = return ) to the room, ( not “My” room / this could be the gunman’s language ) don't give him any trouble. It's not worth taking a bullet over. WE ( = a partnership between the writer and the suspects) walked back ( = returned ) to the room, ( not “My” room ) entered the room ( again not “My” room ) and they ( they ? Do “They” speak in unison ) immediately asked ( = soft tone / a polite request ) where the cash was. The cash was sitting on the table and the gunman asked ( = soft tone / a polite request ) me where the rest of it was. He then asked ( = soft tone / a polite request ) me how much it was and gavehim and estimated and he became slightly IRATE and asked ( = soft tone / a polite request. This is a contradiction, to becoming even slightly “IRATE” ) where the rest of it was. TOLD ( = strong tone ) him that's all it was and he insisted there was more and TOLD ( = strong tone ) me it was not worth dying over. re-stated that was all of the cash and he finally ( unnecessary connection / missing information. Why not just say, “he conceded” ) conceded. At this point, the gunman instructed ( not the strong tone of “told” but the milder tone “instructed” ) me to strip down completely naked and step into the bathroom ( “step into the bathroom” as a posed to “Go’ or “Get” into the bathroom” ) and climb ( “Climb” for the same reasons as “Instructed” and “Step into” ) into the tub. the other suspect proceeded ( = incomplete act / he didn’t tie the writer up ) to tie me up while the gunman consistently reiterated that it wasn't personal, it had to do with that ( = distance ) "faggot on the West Coast," referring to my employer/ producer, Marvin Webster. After ( unnecessary connection / This sentence could have been said without the word “After”. Often unnecessary connections come to replace information and can be associated with missing information ) I had been tied up, I heard them in the parlor searching for something to put the cash in. ( the writer can’t be a profit, how does he know they were searching for something to put the money… how does he know they weren’t searching for more money… he can’t tell us what someone is doing or why someone is doing something ) The gunman re-entered the bathroom where I was tied up and TOLD ( = strong tone ) me not to move for 20-30 minutes They LEFT ( = missing/sensitive information ) the room, I immediately yelled out for them, ( he yelled out for “them”? ) removed myself from the phone cord & adapter used to tie me locked/ barricaded the door after ( unnecessary connection ) making sure the ( they? ) were not still in the room and called the hotel operator to report what happened. Hotel security came to my room, ( Once they (the suspects) are gone “the room” returns to “my room”. This adds to the suspicion that “they” were in “the room” with him before the robbery occurred and that the robbery was staged ) took the report and WE waited for BPD to arrive.

Bonus Statement #9 Said / Told

I closed the restaurant at 9:00 pm. The remaining guest were all gone out of the side door by 9:30pm. The staff finished closing the office I watched sports center then closed the office paperwork. The employees all left out the side door between 12:30 and 1:00am I started to clean the bar, then I took a break and went back into the office. This was about 1:15am, I was sitting there when I felt someone behind me. I turned around and a black guy with a hooded sweatshirt and jugging pants was pointing a gun at me. He said, “open the safe” I said, “ I can’t” he said, “I know you can open it”. I fumbled with it and finally got it open, he handed me a bag and I started sticking in the money I started to hand it back but he said he wanted the cash underneath. I put that in the bag to. We started to back out then with his left hand he ripped the phone out of the wall and said, “Don’t leave the office to call the police someone is watching the building.” He ran off. I waited about five minuets and called the police. He had a scratchy voice but it seemed made up. He was about 5’ 10” and medium build.

Statement #9 Said / Told Marked-up

I closed the restaurant at 9:00 pm. The remaining guest were all gone out of the side door by 9:30pm. The staff finished ( = a break in the action ) closing the office I watched sports center then closed the office paperwork. The employees all LEFT ( = missing/sensitive information ) out the side door between 12:30 and 1:00am started ( = incomplete act ) to clean the bar, then I took a break and went back ( = returned ) into the office. This was about 1:15am, I was sitting there when I felt someone behind me. I turned around and a black guy with a hooded sweatshirt and jugging pants was pointing a gun at me. He said ( = soft tone ), “open the safesaid ( = soft tone ), “ I can’the said ( = soft tone ), “I know you can open it”. I fumbled with it and finally ( unnecessary connection ) got it open, he handed me a bag and started ( = incomplete act ) sticking in the MONEY started ( = incomplete act ) to hand it back ( = return ) but he said ( = soft tone / no quote This is unexpected because at this point the suspect would be growing angry and most likely have “told” the victim he wanted the cash underneath ) he wanted the cash underneath. I put that in the bag to. WEstarted ( = incomplete act ) to back out then with his left hand he ripped the phone out of the wall and said ( = soft tone ), “Don’t leave the office to call the police someone is watching the building.He ran off. I waited about five minuets and called the police. He had a scratchy voice but it seemed made up. He was about 5’ 10” and medium build.

Unintentional information

I Sam Smith, was asked by Ken to get a crowbar. A week later, he told me that he was going to hit the Princess Anne Apartments Laundromat. Later on that night, I saw him and he said that someone was coming so he ran. Then he said he had left the crowbar behind. So, I went back later that night and got the crowbar and took it down to the Ferry and got rid of it. But by me getting rid of the crowbar I had to move the washing machine to get to it. I had not seen Ken sense that night.

 

Unintentional information Marked-up


Sam Smith, was asked ( = soft tone / a polite request ) by Ken ( improper introduction ) to get a crowbar. A week later ( unnecessary connection ), he TOLD ( = strong tone ) me that he was going to hit the Princess Anne Apartments Laundromat. Later ( unnecessary connection ) on that ( = distance ) night, I saw him and he said ( = soft tone ) that someone was coming so ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) he ran. Then he said ( = soft tone ) he had LEFT ( = missing/sensitive information ) the crowbar behind. So ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ), I went back ( = returned - means he was there once already. This is an admission that he was there during the crime ) later ( unnecessary connection ) that ( = distance ) night and got the crowbar and took it down to the Ferry and got rid of it. But by me getting rid of the crowbar had to ( = didn’t want to ) move the washing machine to get to it. I had not seen ( telling us what didn't happen ) Ken sense that ( = distance ) night.


Bonus Statement #10 Wal-Mart Practicum


Yesterday, February 5, 2002, at about 10:30 p.m, the store where I work, Wal-Mart #1134 in Fruitland, Maryland, was robbed. I am the store manager, and I was at work in my office when he came in and robbed me. The robber was a white male, about 35 years old, wearing a dark green zippered sweatshirt and a pair of blue jeans. He wore muddy work boots and was armed with a semi-automatic pistol. I believe it was a Beretta 9mm. I was looking down when he entered my office and when I looked up i didn't realize what was happening. He said, "Get up and go with me." I didn't resist and I didn't have anywhere to run, so I went. We went to each open cash register, numbers 1, 2, 3, 7, 13, and 20, and had each register operator open their drawer and remove the money. It was placed in a pillowcase or something like that. There were a lot of customers in the store and by the time we were finished, a lot of people were aware of the robbery. When we totaled up the receipts, the robbery was in the line of $25,000 but I don't have the exact figure with me now. When he finished robbing the registers, he forced me to accompany him to the parking lot, where he told me to start walking toward the Texas Roadhouse and not look back. I started walking and didn't turn around until I was about a hundred yards away from where I started. i turned and didn't see him so I ran back into the store, gave my keys to Bill Anderson, the greeter, and told him to lock the doors. i ran to the office and called 911, then announced to the customers there had been a robbery Obviously, this statement is false, but it is part of a practicum and therefore needs to be treated as if it were real.

Statement #10 Wal-Mart Practicum Marked-Up


Yesterday, February 5, 2002, at about 10:30 p.m, the store where
I work, Wal-Mart #1134 in Fruitland, Maryland, was robbed. I am the store manager, and I was at work in my office when he came in and robbed me. The robber was a white male, about 35 years old, wearing a dark green zippered sweatshirt and a pair of blue jeans. He wore muddy work boots and was armed with a semi-automatic pistol. believe ( non-committal ) it was a Beretta 9mm. I was looking down when he entered my office and when I looked up i ( = a missing I ) didn’t realize what was happening. ( telling us what didn't happen ) He said ( = soft tone ), "Get up and go with me." didn’t resist ( telling us what didn't happen ) and Ididn’t have anywhere to run, ( telling us what didn't happen ) so ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) I went. WE went to each open cash register, numbers 1, 2, 3, 7, 13, and 20, and had each register operator open their drawer and remove the MONEY. It was placed in a pillowcase or something like ( = not exactly ) that. There were a lot of customers in the store and by the time WE were finished ( = a break in the action ), a lot of people were aware of the robbery. When WE totaled up the receipts, the robbery was in the line of $25,000 but I don't have the exact figure with me now. When he finished ( = a break in the action ) robbing the registers, he forced me to accompany him to the parking lot, where he TOLD ( = strong tone ) me to start walking toward the Texas Roadhouse and not look back. started ( = incomplete act ) walking and didn’t turn around until I was about a hundred yards away from where I started. i ( = a missing I ) turned and didn’t see him so ( = explainer / out-of-sequence ) I ran back ( = returned ) into the store, ( missing "I" ) gavemy keys to Bill Anderson, the greeter, and TOLD ( = strong tone ) himto lock the doors. i ( = a missing I ) ran to the office and called 911, then announced to the customers there had been a robbery


If you look at the changes between said and told you’ll notice the conversations were pretty much one-sided:


He said
He told


The writer doesn’t talk until after the robbery:


Told him to
Called 911


In a case like this it would be nice to sit down with the writer and say, “
In your statement, you stated, "He said, 'Get up and go with me.'" What was your reply? And “When he told you to start walking and not look back, how did you reply to that?”

First we’re looking for the words said vs. told in the writer's answer; therefore, the question has to be worded so as not to include either said or told. ( You don’t want your language to be used by the writer or to affect the subject's response.) Second, we’ll be looking at the verb tense. If the writer is talking about the past, his answer should be given in past tense.


An answer like this should raise suspicion:


He’s saying, 'Get up and go with me,' and I’m telling him, 'don't hurt me.'" This answer would raise an eyebrow for several reasons. First, the right people to be using said and told are reversed: the robber is using said (the soft tone) while the victim -- who should be the more passive party -- is using the stronger declarative word told or telling. Furthermore, the answer is in present tense, which is a sign that there is no commitment.


Conclusion


Statements contain a wealth of information far beyond what the suspect or alleged victim intends to communicate. Fortunately, as investigators, we can use this information to our benefit. Statement analysis provides investigators with vital background data and details about relationships to explore during the interview process. It can also determine whether the intent of the statement is to convey or to convince, that is to say: to convey the truth or to convince through deception. Armed with this knowledge, investigators can enter the interview room with increased confidence to identify the perpetrator and to gain a confession.


For help with questions about analyzing statements or if you ever need help with a statement. Don't hesitate to contact me by P.M. E-mail at, This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. or by phone at 410-285-6108  

 

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