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Marshal Jacob Frey

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Marshal Jacob Frey

An incident that brought out the abilities of the Baltimore police force, was received during the railroad riots of July 1877. Abilities making Baltimore’s Police shine. Monday, 16, July 1877, the Firemen of B&O Railroad’s freight engine team left their jobs. It was a time when the people of this city had lost their heads when the policemen in Baltimore… and Deputy-Marshal Jacob Frey in particular, remained cool, they were brave, and they were strong-minded. A strike was brought about by the Firemen of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad’s freight engine team… a strike that was brought about, after a 10% reduction was taken from their wage. These men demanded that well before the cuts, they were working at a pauper’s wage, but that with the cuts, they could not afford to live the life of a vagrant. The Railroad, however, declared that a downward spiral in the overall business interests of the country had compelled the pay cuts, and made them unable to pay a higher wage.

There were about one hundred of them at first. In many instances, they went out on their trains a few miles from the city, and when the engines stopped to take coal they left their places, refusing to go any further. At first, the strike seemed easy to manage, but as the first day wore on, and news came that the trouble had reached Martinsburg, further that the militia had been called out, things became more serious. The police were promptly on hand. They were stationed in twos and threes, at various points between Baltimore, the Relay House, and a squad of twelve that were at Camden Junction.

Like many times of tension in the city of Baltimore, both before this riot, and in many riots since; the first day passed rather quietly, although in this case few of the freight trains left the city. On the second day, however, 17 July 1877, [Tuesday] the excitement began. A freight train of eighteen loaded cars from the West; bound for Locust Point, was partly wrecked by means of a misplaced switch at a trestle near the foot of Leaden Hall Street, Spring Garden, the engine and several cars were thrown into a gulley. News, arrived of a fight at Martinsburg, in which two firemen were shot. At 1st 1ight the employees of the Baltimore and Ohio Company held a meeting, they decided to support the strikers, but first, they would try seeking conciliation with the company.

The conciliation failed, and the strike went on. It was Wednesday, [18 July 1877] the third day of troubles for B&O, the West Virginia authorities called on President Hayes for troops, and a proclamation was issued at once by the President. Troops were promptly sent. Of course, all this had its effect in Baltimore, but on that day there were no hostile demonstrations here. The freight business amounted practically to nothing, but the passenger trains arrived and departed as usual.

The Company decided not to recede from its position, and a reward of $500 was offered by it for the arrest of the person, or persons who caused the Spring Garden wreck. On the fourth day [19, July 1877] the troubles continued in Martinsburg, but there was no outbreak here in Baltimore. It would take nearly a full five days for any excitement to take place here. But when it arrived, Baltimore was more excited than it had been since the war.

About 3 o'clock in the afternoon of Friday, when the news had been received that the strike at Cumberland threatened to assume general proportions, Governor Carroll held a consultation with the officers of the Baltimore and Ohio Company, and became convinced that the presence of the military at Cumberland was necessary for the preservation of peace and order. A half-hour later he issued an order to Brigader-General Herbert, commanding the First Brigade, M. N. G., ordering him to proceed to Cumberland. Simultaneously he issued a proclamation calling upon the rioters to desist. Soon afterward General Herbert held another consultation with Governor Carroll to consider whether the military should be summoned to their respective armories by a "military call" from the bells. Governor Carroll objected to this, and General Herbert tried to get the men at the armories by the ordinary means, but not succeeding very well, again asked the Governor that the bells be rung. This was done, and a great misfortune was proven.

At twenty minutes to 6:00 the call 1-5-1 was sound from the fire bells at City Hall. The people knew what it meant, and in a very short time, the streets around the armories were filled with men and boys of all ages who sympathized with the strikers. It was about the time that the work in the factories was over, and all the workmen helped to swell the crowds. In front of the armory of the Sixth Regiment, at Fayette and Front streets, the mob numbered at least 2,000. Strangely enough, the officers of the regiment sent word to the police headquarters, asking that policemen be sent to clear the way so that the regiment could march on to Camden station.

The old system then in vogue scattered the policemen, so that not enough of them could be collected in time for the work, and in two hours the crowd was so large that no force was able to handle it.

The troubles at the Sixth Regiment Armory began at about seven o'clock. A brickbat was thrown into one of the windows.

Four policemen, Officers Albert Whitely, James Jamison, Oliver Kenly, and Roberts-were stationed at the door, and in spite of the volleys of stones, missiles, and jeers that followed they manfully stood their dangerous guard, although the four militiamen who had been with the policemen had been called in. The hour set for marching was 8.15 o'clock, and the crowd had become maddened and aggressive. The companies, however, destemmed to pass the rioters. When they appeared on the street there was a riot so general that it drove the men back again into the building. 'the next time they came out they had orders to fire. The first company fired high, but the attack became so heavy on the following companies that they discharged their weapons into the crowd. From that instant all along the march to Camden station the firing was continuous and general, resulting in the killing of about a dozen people and the serious wounding of much more.

The Fifth regiment did not use its guns, although it was severely attacked and had every provocation to fire. The men marched admirably through showers of stones and other missiles. There were 250 of them. At the junction of Camden and Eutaw streets, a solid mass of rough-looking men blocked their passage. They came to a halt for a moment, and although the bricks were falling fast, Captain Zollinger counseled his men NOT to fire.

Then he ordered them to prepare to double-quick with their fixed bayonets into the depot. Drawing his sword, Captain Zollinger shouted to the mob to give way that the command might pass. A brawny man opposed the Captain, who promptly knocked him down, and amid the hoots and yells, came several shots from the

 Crowd; inviting the regiment to charge the depot. Soon after the regiment had reached the station the building was set on fire, the rioters attempted to interfere with the firemen, but fortunately, their attempts had failed, and the flames were knocked to embers, and then to ashes.

The fearless service of the police during these rebel rousing times has never been properly recognized bar a few brief passages in the newspapers. In every instance, they awed the mob, while the soldiers exasperated the situation.

One policeman was equal to a dozen soldiers. Until long after midnight the police protected the military and guarded all the depot buildings. It was our police who protected the firemen, their engines, and the hoses they used, and therefore it was our police who saved the buildings. They were fired upon by the mob, and some were wounded, but they wounded a number of the mob in return, and in addition, they made many arrests.

The result of this great excitement was that the order sending the soldiers to Cumberland was withdrawn, and a proclamation to that effect was issued by Mayor Latrobe.

During these days the efficiency of the police department was tested and proven. Deputy-Marshal Jacob Frey had command of, and around Camden station. While for nearly seventy hours he went without sleep, as he single-handedly maintained control of the mob. Long before any of his officers could assemble, on that Friday and previous to the arrival of the military, Frey had cleared the platform, and front pavement of several hundred excited, and unruly men. But, when reinforcements arrived, and without hesitation, Deputy-Marshal Frey waded into that crowd, where he in short order arrested two of the agitators. Without incident, they were taken into his custody and transported to the Southern District Station House where Frey himself, booked the pair.

On Saturday night crowds again collected around Camden station. About 9 P. M. a fire-alarm excited the rioters so that they rushed towards the lines that the police had formed. Shots were fired by the rioters, and 'several officers fell wounded. Then it was that Deputy-Marshal Frey told the men to keep steady, and a moment afterward, their pistols being drawn, the command of "Take &Im-.Fire" was given. They fired low, and as they fired they rushed forward, and each officer grabbed a prisoner. Fifty arrests were made; several men were killed and a. number wounded. There was another outbreak at 11 o'clock and fifty-three more arrests were made. On Sunday morning large crowds again collected around the Camden Station, and they were closely pressing upon the picket lines of the Fifth Regiment. Deputy-Marshal Frey, not liking the looks of things, sent for a squad of twenty policemen. When they arrived the Deputy-Marshal took charge of them in person. He told the crowd that he was going to "clear that street" and he advised all peaceably disposed of persons to go home. Many of them did so but much more remained. Turning to his men, the Marshal gave orders to " Forward," and in a very short time, the rioters were driven away. They knew the Deputy-Marshal, and they were afraid of him.

When the riot had assumed such threatening proportions every effort was made to protect the city. United States soldiers from New York and other cities were promptly ordered to Baltimore. General W. S. Hancock arrived with eight companies of troops from New York harbor, and two war vessels with 560 men, fully equipped, anchored in the Patapsco. Several hundred special policemen were sworn in by the Police Board. Among them were such well-known citizens as William M. Pegram, Alexander M. Green, C. Morton Stewart, Frank Frick, E. Wyatt Blanchard, James H. Barney, J. L. Hoffman, Robert G. Hoffman, W. Gilmore Hoffman, John Donnell Smith, William A. Fisher, Frederick von Kapff, and Washington B. Hanson. They were supplied with the regular badges, and they did good work. The regular policemen were unfaltering in their duty, and most of them did not sleep during the more than fifty hours. The great show of strength by the police and troops overawed the rioters, and the troubles were gradually quieted. The following Saturday freight trains, each guarded by ten soldiers, moved out on the road.

The strikes in other cities continued, more or less, but within two weeks they were over. Trouble on the Northern Central railroad was happily averted. The jury of the inquest which sat upon the man killed by the Sixth Regiment was very thorough in its investigations, and after several days consumed in taking testimony, it rendered a verdict which found the rioters guilty of the troubles but charged the regiment with shooting too hastily and too indiscriminately. It found fault because there were not more policemen on hand around the armory. This, however, was purely the fault of the military authorities in not giving sufficient notice to the Marshal. The part that the police force took in the memorable conflict will forever stand a monument to its courage and efficiency.

Freywatch1Jacob Frey's Watch 

Union Soldiers Attacked 
The first months of the civil war were a time sore trial for Baltimore’s police, in a border city of strong Southern sympathy they had the tough job of protecting union soldiers passing through, won their way to the southern battlefields, the soldiers, unlike other passengers were carried slowly to the streets in the course cars. The billing crowds, cheering Jefferson Davis, saw the wrapper tape to attack and they did a show in the true riding tradition of all Baltimore.  They threw stones and other missiles at the cars. But on April 19, 1861, the crowds attempted to stop the soldier’s movement and it was a fateful day for the Baltimore police department.  Tamales blocked the track near Gay and Pratt streets by piling on it a dray load of sand, a pile of cobblestones and some light anchors.   

Police Heads Imprisoned
220 union soldiers got out and attempted to march to Camden station.  It was the signal for the onslaught.  The rioters attempted to snatch soldier’s rifles during the ensuing fight.  Police with pistols drawn, threatening to shoot tried to protect the Union soldiers, but to little avail.  Four soldiers were killed, 36 wounded.  Likewise, 12 citizens were killed. Some weeks later General Banks in command of the Union forces in Baltimore, decided to take over the police department.  He arrested Marshal Kane and confined him to Fort McHenry.  In the later, hours he arrested the final three commissioners.  They were sent to prison where they were held for more than a year. New Commissioners were selected and those with Union sympathy were named in the new department and went on the Federal payroll. In the posts war, the department began innovations that have since become the trademarks of American police everywhere.  Among other things, the patrol wagon, the helmet, and the police telegraph box were introduced. Up to about 1885 again necessary for policemen to Carey very drunk prisoners on their backs to the station house that is when they commandeer a wheelbarrow. Chicago was the first American City to employ patrols and Baltimore is believed to be the second. 
While in the gymnasium of Central's station reading an illustrated magazine Deputy Marshal Jacob Frey saw facts on police patrol wagons first being used in Chicago. He brought the idea before the (BOC) Board of Commissioners; they were mildly interested. Frey didn't give up on ideas that he believed in; some weeks later he called the board’s attention to the matter again, they had forgotten about it but promised to look into it. Wagon's and the Police Telegraph Box Systems were the future of policing in Frey's eyes, 


Telegraph Box System 
After the BOC failed to act, Deputy Marshal Frey took matters into its own hands. He sent members of the department to Chicago to see how the "New Fanged" patrols wagons worked. An old record states, "they were charmed." While there, they also looked into Chicago’s new "Police Telegraph Box" system. (the Call Box). The results of Baltimore's trip was both of these tools were in Baltimore by the fall of 1885. According to Baltimore Sun paper reports, Chicago was the first to use the Police Telegraph System, and Baltimore became the second Department in the country to use the system. Baltimore continued using these boxes from 1885 until 1986 when they established a 1-800 number for police to use when radio use was inappropriate. All boxes were finally removed from service by 1988.

The Police Helmet 
Already worn in other cities, was made of a rule in Baltimore and 1886.  It was introduced by Commissioner Alford J. Carr.  It took the place of the derby formerly worn by policemen.  Commissioner Carr specified that the helmet the black in the winter and pearl gray and summer.  The helmet at that time was significant of rank, I only patrolman and sergeants and wore it.  The marshal and his deputy and captains and lieutenants were.  It was said at the time that the hygienic the fact of the home and was excellent, giving the policemen’s had a chance to secure proper ventilation.

Friday, Aug 20, 1886, New Badge
New badges for the police captains – today the captains of the police force of the city will appear with new badges. The police board having issued an order to that effect. For some time past, Marshall Frey states, the captains have complained that their old badges were identical with the badges worn by nearly every private detective or watchman in the city. The old badges were simply a star within a circle, with the words “Capt. of Police” on the rim. The new badges are much more elaborate and are very handsome. The form is a shield, about 2 ½ inches long and 2 inches wide. Of silver. The Maryland Coat of Arms is and blazoned on the face. An “eye” is engraved over the coat of arms. The word “Capt.” appears below. The new badges were made by Mr. John W. Torsch. Marshall Fray says that the force being a state institution, he thought it appropriate to have placed the Maryland coat of arms upon the badge. He further says that the “eye” is intended to remind the captains that their duty is to be always on the alert.

Jacob Frey served as Marshal from Oct 15, 1885 - Jul 12, 1897
On July 12, 1897, the active connection of Marshal Jacob Frey with the Police Department ceased. On October 7, 1897, Capt. Samuel T.Hamilton was elected Marshal of Police to succeed Marshal Frey. Marshal Hamilton was a veteran officer of the Civil War and a man of indisputable courage and integrity. For many years following the great civil conflict he had served on the Western frontier and took part in the unremitting campaigns against the Sioux and other Indian tribes, who were constantly waging war upon the settlers and pioneers as they pushed their way toward the setting sun, building towns and railroads and trying to conquer the wilderness and its natural dwellers. In the Sioux campaign of 1876, when Gen. George A. Custer and his gallant command, outnumbered ten to one by the Indians in the valley of the Little Big Horn, were annihilated, Captain Hamilton and his troop rode day and night in a vain effort to re-enforce Custer and his sorely pressed men. It was on June 26, 1876, the Seventh United States Cavalry rode and fought to their deaths, and on June 27, the day following, the reinforcements arrived, exhausted from their terrific ride across the country. Captain Hamilton and his troop fought through the rest of the campaign, which resulted in Sitting Bull, the great Indian war chief, being driven across the Canadian frontier.

The Harbor Thieves
The Sun (1837-1987); 
Jul 27, 1886; pg. 4
The police have not yet arrested the thieves who robbed several vessels early Sunday morning in the harbor. The thieves are supposed to be the same who robbed one vessel in Washington last Friday night. Robberies have been reported all along the coast. And the police have good cause for believing that a band of professional thieves are doing the work as a great deal of adroitness and system have been shown. In speaking of the need of better facilities for capturing the thieves, police Marshall Frey said he had made a written recommendation on the subject to the board of police commissioners, as follows;“ There exist a necessity for a harbor police boat, as many depredations and other offenses are committed on vessels and along the shore by persons in small boats, the policeman on land in many instances being unable to see or hear them, and in many cases when seen or heard the thieves are enabled to escape for the want of proper facilities to pursue and arrest them. About 18 years ago we had yawl boat doing duty about the harbor and it did good service, but the demands for the policemen on land compelled us to abandon even that crude system of harbor protection.” The police board recognized the importance of this recommendation and incorporated a provision in an act to better define the special fund in the hands of the board so as to provide for a harbor patrol boat, but the provision was stricken out when the act was passed by the last legislature. The special fund is raised by fines imposed by the police magistrates and is used in building station houses, for patrol wagons and pensions. The Marshal says that New York, Philadelphia, Boston and other cities have harbor police boats, which are a great help in protecting vessels property, he says that the Baltimore needs a steam yacht, with about four rowboats. The yacht could move up and down the harbor all night long, and the rowboats could patrol the docs under the direction of the yacht, which should have its regular police captain. He thinks it would require about 15 or 16 additional policemen to do the work thoroughly. The Marshal said also that the people of the city have no idea how many thefts are committed in the harbor. The only vessel Robberies usually reported in the newspapers are those of jewelry, clothes, and money, but by far the largest loss is in Produce, which is stolen so successfully that the captain of the vessels and the owners of the products are not aware of the robbery until the Produce is taken out and a shortage discovered. It was too put a stop to these robberies, as well as to catch the professional thieves, that the Marshal recommended the establishment of the harbor police boat. Mr. George Colton president of the board says that he does not think the board could establish the harbor system without special legislation. The board, as well as the Marshal and deputy Marshal, recognize the necessity for a patrol boat.

Guarding The Harbor 
Reported for the Baltimore Sun 
The Sun (1837-1987); Jul 31, 1886; - pg. 6 
Policemen in rowboats on the lookout proceeds – the patrol wagons. Marshall Frey, acting under instruction from the police board, has organized a special system of police protection for the harbor of Baltimore. He has four flat bottomed boats and 12 policemen now engaged in the work. Three policemen are assigned to each boat each boat will carry two pairs of oars so that in the case of a chase two men can pull. Each boat will also be provided with a dark lantern. The policeman selected to do this duty have been chosen from those who are best acquainted with the harbor and its immediate surroundings. Of the four boats, to have been assigned to the Eastern District, one to the central and one to the southern district. The boats will start out at dark and remain on duty until daylight.

Pres. Colton, of the police board, says that this experiment was started as the best thing the board could do under the circumstances. In the absence of necessary legislation upon the subject. The board could not place a regular steam patrol boat in service. At the last session of the legislature, he had asked for a police boat, but the legislature would not consent. The present experiment will cost but little, as the boats are hired by the night at a small cost. There is a reason to believe that it will prove successful.

Marshall Frey is speaking of police protection to the harbor, said a steam launch was undoubtedly the best means of guarding the harbor. He could not definitely state what kind of boat would actually be the best, but his impression was that a boat should be built with all the conveniences necessary for the service. He thought that about 25 men would be a fair compliment. The present experiment would he said be a great move in the direction of harbor protection, and that nothing better could be done until the next meeting of the legislature when the request for a police boat will be repeated.

The arrangements for the introduction of patrol wagon system are nearly completed: all of the polls have been placed in positions and the wires run. The boxes will probably be placed in position next week the new wagon for the southern district is finished. It was built by Mr. John F. Bunter, of Baltimore. It is somewhat similar to the wagon used in the central district, but has several improvements. The body of the wagon is 7 feet long. To the left is a small apartment for the stretcher, was can be placed in without the slightest difficulty. A similar apartment on the right can be used for placing heavy weapons in case of an emergency. The entrance is by steps in the rear. The steps are all finished and brass. The body of the wagon is painted black. The wheels are Carmine with yellow borderings. The wagon will be drawn by one horse. The work of interest to seeing the system in the Eastern district is also making rapid progress.

The Harbor Patrol 
Reported for the Baltimore Sun - The Sun (1837-1987); Aug 7, 1886; -pg. 6 
A trip in one of the police boats – sites revealed by the dark lantern.“Where’s Your Light?” The words were followed by a flash of the dark lantern which made a halo of bright in circles the head of a colored man who was scuttling a boat at night toward a fleet of Bay vessels lying ahead to the wind of Henderson’s wharf.

“Boss, I just took somebody the shore,” and the orbits of the surprised fellow in large as he winked and blanked in terror of the unseen questioner. The man shaded his eyes tried to pierce the glare of the lantern but every moment was followed by the blinding light before him.

A quick flash in the light was cut off, revealing to the scared man three policemen in one of the harbor patrol boats of the Eastern District. In the Stearns, sheets set a Sun reporter, who was temporarily coxswain of the swift little cutter. After instructing the Charon of the reason he was challenged he was permitted to go and was a happy man.

A cruise with a harbor patrol is an interesting feature in that branch of police work recently inaugurated by Marshall Frey for the protection of property on wharves and on shipboard. Therefore boats on duty nightly, each containing three officers, who have been selected on account of previous acquaintances with the harbor and their knowledge of handling boats. The work is divided into four boats. Beginning at the southern extremity of light Street wharf the central crew patrols along the Steamboat peers: thence onto the north side of the basin to the drawbridge. Commencing there, number one crew, of the Eastern District patrols to Henderson’s wharf, where number two crew picks up the work and extends it to the Lazaretto light. Capt. Delanty’s crew and the southern district have the south side of the harbor, including the shipyards, coal wharves and steamship piers as far as Fort McHenry.

Capt. Auid, with foresight born of experience with ships and boats, selected two handsome cutters which formally were one Mr. T. Harrison Garrett’s yacht Gleam. They are particularly adapted for the work, being light and easily driven through the water. Two officers pull while third attends the filler, bundles the light or give directions. A system of order and regularity is in force. Each man is assigned to some detail of the boat or his charge of some of the gear so that no confusion can occur.

On the night in question there was a strong southerly breeze, which made the harbor a little lumpy, causing the motion of the patrol boat that guards the Canton hallow to leap and jump over the waves as it delighted with the change from the smooth water that prevailed under the ice of wharves and ships further up.

Strong and sturdy polls made the cut or skim over the water like a recent shell. The unexpected incidents during the trip were in some cases very ludicrous. Suddenly pounding the stern of the vessel, a wharf came in for inspection. The dark lantern soon showed that the officer in the bow was on the alert, and on lighting up the wharf with the lantern two lovers were on graciously surprised. The head that rested on Romeo’s shoulder became erect abruptly as if it never knew any other position, and Romeo himself appeared very much confused. All was darkness again in the boat and on the wharf as the light of the lantern were set off, and maybe the old, old story was whispered once more under the inspection of the waves that gurgled beneath the pier.

Past lonely wharves and warehouses, where everything was quiet: under Stern of great ships loading for C; nearly grazing the head while passing under the bow of some small craft: then up and obscured dock, peering under peers: then darting after a boat with a lone occupant to learn his business: past steamers banks and ships, factories and furnaces, and then under the glare of the two red lights of the Lazaretto, which marks the bounds of the police patrol, the little boat silently, swiftly collided.

In the distance, the lights of the city twinkled and the street showed their outlines by the regularity of the gas lamps, which appeared like a Torchlight procession. The only noise on the water was the swishing of the waves against the seawall, or the pool – pull of some belated tug returning to point. Occasionally the crew rested on their oars and drifted with the current, or stopped to scan an object that looks like a boat.

The duties of the patrol are multifarious. Vessels are boarded, and those on board instructed on the necessity of keeping doors locked and look out on property lying about decks. Every rowboat or sailboat is now known by the patrol. They know to whom it belongs and where it ties up. His absence suggests inquiry, and its whereabouts is determined. The route of the patrol is governed by circumstance, but with and every hour the whole beat is twice covered. Preliminarily to the general cruising, vessels which arrived during the day are located and made aware of by duty of keeping a lookout.

An illustration of the carelessness of master of the vessel was given the other night. A light was seen through the open door of a schooner cabin and rather an unreasonable hour. The patrol went alongside and halted the vessel. No one responded for several minutes, and then not until the oars had been used in a knock against the cabin a man came quickly up the companionway rubbing the sleep from his eyes. He was told of the probability of seeds being invited to call upon him, and as a precaution, he closed his cabin. “If all Mariners sleep like that fellow and his crew,” said the officer, “chloroform need not be used.” 

call box 1885 72

Police Call Box
Saturday (16 October 1885) Box 63 was the 1st used
It was located at the corner of Franklin and Charles Streets

History
Based on the following Baltimore got its first Call Box in 1885

Baltimore's first patrol wagon went into service on 25 October 1885 and is believed to have made Baltimore only the second city to use patrol wagons in the country behind Chicago. While in the gymnasium of Central's station reading an illustrated magazine Marshal Jacob Frey saw facts on police patrol wagons first being used in Chicago. He brought the idea before the (BOC) Board of Commissioners; they were mildly interested. Frey didn't give up on ideas that he believed in; some weeks later he called the board’s attention to the matter again, they had forgotten about it but promised to look into it. Wagon's and the Police Telegraph Box Systems were the future of policing in Frey's eyes, and after The BOC failed to act, Marshal Frey took matters into its own hands. He sent one of the members of the department to Chicago to see how the "New Fanged" patrols wagons worked. An old record states, "they were charmed." While there, they saw Chicago’s new "Police Telegraph Box" system. (Known now as the Call box). The results of Baltimore's trip was both of these tools were in Baltimore by the fall of 1885. According to Baltimore Sun paper reports, Chicago was the first to use the Police Telegraph System, and Baltimore became the second department in the country to use the system. Baltimore continued using these boxes from 1885 until 1985 when they established a 1-800 number for police to use to call back into the station when radio use was inappropriate. All boxes were finally removed from service by 1987.

An 1894 advertisement for the "Glasgow Style Police Signal Box System", sold by the National Telephone Company. The first police telephone was installed in Albany, New York in 1877, one year after Alexander Graham Bell invented the device. Call boxes for use by both police and members of the public were first installed in Washington, DC in 1883; Chicago and Detroit installed police call boxes in 1884, and in 1885 Boston followed suit. These were direct line telephones placed on a post which could often be accessed by a key or breaking a glass panel. In Chicago, the telephones were restricted to police use, but the boxes also contained a dial mechanism which members of the public could use to signal different types of alarms: there were eleven signals, including "Police Wagon Required", "Thieves", "Forgers", "Murder", "Accident", "Fire" and "Drunkard".

The first public police telephones in Britain were introduced in Glasgow in 1891. These tall, hexagonal, cast-iron boxes were painted red and had large gas lanterns fixed to the roof, as well as a mechanism which enabled the central police station to light the lanterns as signals to police officers in the vicinity to call the station for instructions.

Rectangular, wooden police boxes were introduced in Sunderland in 1923, and Newcastle in 1925. The Metropolitan Police (Met) introduced police boxes throughout London between 1928 and 1937, and the design that later became the most well-known was created for the Met by Gilbert MacKenzie Trench in 1929.[6][7] Although some sources (e.g.) assert that the earliest boxes were made of wood, the original MacKenzie Trench blueprints indicate that the material for the shell of the box is "concrete" with only the door being made of wood (specifically, "teak"). Officers complained that the concrete boxes were extremely cold. For use by the officers, the interiors of the boxes normally contained a stool, a table, brushes and dusters, a fire extinguisher, and a small electric heater. Like the 19th century Glaswegian boxes, the London police boxes contained a light at the top of each box, which would flash as a signal to police officers indicating that they should contact the station; the lights were, by this time, electrically powered.

By 1953 there were 685 police boxes on the streets of London. Police boxes played an important role in police work until 1969-1970, when they were phased out following the introduction of personal radios. As the main function of the boxes was superseded by the rise of portable telecommunications devices like the walkie-talkie, very few police boxes remain in Britain today. Some have been converted into High Street coffee bars. These are common in Edinburgh, though the City also has dozens that remain untouched — most in various states of disrepair.

Edinburgh's boxes are relatively large, and are of a rectangular plan, with a design by Ebenezer James MacRae, who was inspired by the city's abundance of neoclassical architecture. At their peak, there were 86 scattered around the city. In 2012, Lothian and Borders Police sold a further 22, leaving them owning 20. One police box situated in the Leicestershire village of Newtown Linford is still used by local police today.

The red police box, as seen at the Glasgow Museum of Transport In 1994 Strathclyde Police decided to scrap the remaining Glasgow police boxes. However, owing to the intervention of the Civil Defence & Emergency Service Preservation Trust and the Glasgow Building Preservation Trust, some police boxes were retained and remain today as part of Glasgow's architectural heritage. At least four remain—on Great Western Road (at the corner of Byres Road); Buchanan Street (at the corner of Royal Bank Place); Wilson Street (at the intersection of Glassford Street, recently completely restored); and one near the corner of Cathedral Square (at the corner of Castle Street, also recently restored). There was also a red police box preserved in the Glasgow Museum of Transport but this was returned to the Civil Defence Trust after Glasgow City Council decided it did not fit in with the new Transport Museum. The police boxes in Glasgow on Great Western Road is leased as a coffee and donut kiosk, Cathedral Square is leased as the "Tartan Tardis," selling Scottish memorabilia, and Buchanan Street is currently under license to a Glasgow-based ice cream outlet. As of November 2011, and restrictions are enforced by the Civil Defence & Emergency Service Preservation Trust to prevent the exterior of the boxes from being modified beyond the trademarked design.

The Civil Defence & Emergency Service Preservation Trust now manage eleven of the UK's last "Gilbert Mackenzie Trench" Police Signal Boxes on behalf of a private collector. Another blue police box of this style is preserved at the National Tramway Museum, Crich, Derbyshire. One of the Trust's boxes stands outside the Kent Police Museum in Chatham, Kent. and another at Grampian Transport Museum. An original MacKenzie Trench box exists on the grounds of the Metropolitan Police College (Peel Centre) at Hendon. There is no public access, but it can easily be seen from a Northern Line tube train traveling from Colindale to Hendon Central (on the left-hand side).

In the City of London, there are eight non-functioning police "call posts" still in place which are Grade II listed buildings. The City of London Police versions were cast iron rectangular posts, as the streets are too narrow for full sized boxes. One compartment contained the telephone and another locked compartment held a first aid kit.

Fifty posts were installed in the "Square Mile" from 1907; they were in use until 1988.

On Thursday 18 April 1996 a new police box based on the Mackenzie Trench design was unveiled outside the Earl's Court tube station in London, equipped with CCTV cameras and a telephone to contact police. The telephone ceased to function in April 2000 when London's telephone numbers were changed, but the box remained, despite the fact that funding for its upkeep and maintenance had long since been exhausted. In March 2005, the Metropolitan Police resumed funding the refurbishment and maintenance of the box (which is something of a tourist attraction, thanks to the Doctor Who association — see below). Glasgow introduced a new design of police boxes in 2005. The new boxes are not booths but rather computerized kiosks that connect the caller to a police CCTV control room operator. They stand ten feet in height with a chrome finish and act as 24-hour information points, with three screens providing information on crime prevention, police force recruitment and even tourist information. Manchester also has "Help Points" similar to those in Glasgow, which contains a siren that is activated by the emergency button being pressed; this also causes CCTV cameras nearby to focus on the Help Point. Liverpool has structures similar to police boxes, known as police "Help Points", which are essentially an intercom box with a push button mounted below a CCTV camera on a post with a direct line to the police.

 JF Book

 

JF Engraving

Curently on loan to the BPD Museum
It shows where Marshal Frey ordered some engraving's on our pistols circa 1886

JF ROWBOAT RENTAL

This shows where Marshal Frey rented a rowboat for the Southern Dstrict 1886

Freywatch1

This is a pic of Marshal Frey's watch and what follows are arious shots from varius angles

JF WATCH2

JF WATCH1

JF WATCH5

JF WATCH6

No one who does not know of Marshal Jacob Frey would think from a casual look at him that he was one of the best and bravest police officers in the country. His appearance is that of an unusually intelligent and agreeable gentleman whom a stranger would not hesitate to choose as an associate, but he is a great deal more than that. There is not a cooler or a gamer man living than he. Although below the average height, he is so strong, so quietly determined, and so thoroughly in earnest that he is universally esteemed by good citizens and as thoroughly feared by the bad ones. He is the one man in a hundred thousand who knows in emergencies what to do and how to do it. When Hollohan attempted to kill him at Annapolis, and inflicted wounds which would have knocked all moderation out of the ordinary man, Marshal Frey merely stayed the arm of his assailant moreover, magnanimously entreated the intensely excited spectators in the courtroom not to harm the prisoner. Moreover, yet Mr. Frey did not start out in life with any ambition to be a police officer. He went through the public schools was graduated at the High School, and entered the stove business. He afterward became a manufacturer of stoves. Jacob Frey was appointed captain April 23, 1867, and assumed command of the Southern district. Superior efficiency did not distinguish its force. It was looked upon as one of the least worthy of the four districts, and when anything of exceptional importance occurred men were sent from the Central office to work it up. Big cases were never entrusted to the Southern district police. Captain Frey appreciated this, and in his quiet way determined to remedy it. He was resolved to show that he and his force were able to attend fully to their duties. He made no boasts but let his record speak. In a short time, the force of the Southern district showed new energy and proficiency. It was equal to every emergency, and the poor estimate of its importance which had been held at headquarters passed entirely away. The Southern district men became as thoroughly trusted as any of their rivals. Several bits of good work fell under Captain Frey's supervision, and he managed them admirably. One of these cases was the cold-blooded murder of Captain Johnson and his mate in Tangier Sound, by four men of color who had shipped on board of an oyster-boat at Baltimore. It occurred in the spring of 1867. Mr. Martin, secretary to the Police Commission, was from Somerset County, and of course, the people down there at once turned to him to detect and arrest the murderers. He very naturally wanted every effort concentrated upon the case. Two of the negroes escaped to the eastern shore of Virginia and were captured, but the other two—Frank Rounds and George Bailey—covered their tracks more successfully. Weeks passed, and no clue to their whereabouts was obtained. Captain Frey continued his diligence, however, and months afterward succeeded in locating Rounds in Guilford's alley, where he was promptly arrested. Months after this Captain Frey found Bailey in the Baltimore City Jail, to which he had been committed as a common thief. The Captain took both prisoners to Princess Anne, where they were convicted. They were hanged on March 5, 1868. Another case which Captain Frey handled with great success was the attack made by "Joe " Woods, a negro, upon Captain Clayton, whose vessel lay at Smith's dock. The present commander of the Central district, Captain Farnan, made the arrest, and the story of the crime is told in the sketch of his life. Captain Frey, although successful to an unusual degree in his work, was not entirely satisfied with its financial aspect. The pay was only $22 a week and was a great deal less than his income in business had been. He had left his establishment in the hands of an employee, and he found that his business interests were neglected. He consequently decided to give up police work and return to the more lucrative if, the more prosaic business of manufacturing stoves, but the Police Commissioners would not hear of such a thing. President Jarrett was particularly emphatic in his protestations, and Captain Frey was finally induced to remain. On April 19, 1870, the Commissioners selected a Deputy-Marshal. They cast their unanimous vote for Captain Jacob Frey. He accepted the place, gave up his private business, and from the start devoted his energies and great abilities to the work of his responsible position. There has not been an important event in the police history of Baltimore since that .time in which he has not prominently participated. The murderous assault, on Monday night, April 24, 1871, upon Mrs. Carlotta Sarracco, the wife of an Italian music teacher, who lived in a charming little cottage just beyond the city limits, east of Charles Street and near the Blind Asylum, greatly aroused the indignation of the citizens of Baltimore. The Sarracco cottage was a bower of flowers. Mr. Sarracco was a Tuscan and brought with him from that beautiful part of Italy many of the tastes which make the people of Tuscany so artistic and lovable. He and his wife were devoted to each other. His profession enabled him to spend much of his time at home, and all of his leisure he devoted to his wife and his flowers. He had several pupils in different parts of Baltimore County, and he was sometimes compelled to spend the night away from home. One of these occasions was on the night of the assault. Mr. Sarracco went to Hagerstown where he was to fill an engagement, and he left his wife, the only other person in the house being a colored boy-of-all-work named Jeremiah Mahomet, a bright lad about seventeen years old. The day had been passed by Mrs. Sarracco in house-cleaning, and as the rooms in the upper part of the house were still damp, she resolved to pass the night on the lower floor. She made up a couch with some mattresses in the dining room and retired. She was a sound sleeper, and she took the precaution before going to bed to tell Mahomet that he should respond instantly at any noise he might hear in the house. This the boy promised to do. It was nearly midnight when a big hand was pushed stealthily through the* vines which half closed the windows of the dining room, The latch of the sash was carefully forced back with a thin-bladed knife, and noiselessly the form of a negro entered the room. It was moonlight without and against that brilliant background the man stood, much intense black against the splendor of the night. The negro, his eyes opened to their widest, his; hands outstretched in the obscurity of the room, moved forward. He struck his bare feet against the rocker of a chair. A low curse relieved him, and again he moved forward, his eyes fixed upon the rear of the room where Mrs. Sarracco was lying. It took the negro several minutes to pass across that ten feet of. floor. Every creak of the boards beneath his feet would startle him; as the mice would run about within the wall, the negro would stop and glance fearfully over his shoulder, dreading lest he was discovered. At last, he stood over the bed. There was little pause then. He pushed his hand beneath Mrs. Sarracco's pillow but discovered no valuables there. Then believing that she might wear some jewelry about her neck, he laid his hand upon a necklace which Mr. Sarracco had presented to his wife a short time before. The burning touch awakened the sleeping lady. She saw the low forehead and gleaming eyes of the negro close to her face. With a cry of horror, she sprang up and cried out: "What do you want?" "Hush or I will kill you," hissed her assailant. The threat was sufficient to indicate the ruffian's purpose. Mrs. Sarracco leaped from her bed and grappled with the negro. She -was a woman of large frame and was stronger than most of her sex. The conflict was a terrible one. The negro and his expected victim rolled about the floor of the room fighting like demons. Mrs. Sarracco bit and scratched the man until the blood streamed from his face and neck. Finally, finding himself matched in strength, the negro drew a sharp razor, a weapon which at that time was becoming popular with colored desperadoes, and made several severe gashes upon the face of his victim, she bravely holding on to him and screaming for help all the time. The man succeeded in disengaging his hand once more and made another slash at the lady's throat, cutting down toward the breastbone, and just grazing the windpipe. He then wrenched himself away and jumped out of the rear window through which he had entered. Before he went, however, he knocked his victim down by a blow of his fist. By this time the colored boy in the basement, having been awakened by the screams of his mistress and the noise of the struggle, came running up-stairs. As he entered the dining room, the burglar was making his exit through the window. He dropped his hat as he went. The boy at once raised an alarm and assistance soon arrived. Doctors Page and Grindrat were roused and came at once to dress Mrs. Sarracco's wounds. Their promptness probably prevented her bleeding to death. After a long illness, the gashes she received in the encounter healed. Deputy-Marshal Frey hearing of the occurrence at an early hour, went out to the scene, reaching the house at five o'clock in the morning. He found the room in which the conflict took place in a state of considerable confusion, showing the terrible ordeal through which Mrs. Sarracco had passed. The furniture was overturned, and the pools of blood on the wooden floor indicated the course of the struggle. On the window sill through which the burglar escaped, quantities of blood were left, and the walls were bespattered with gore. Deputy-Marshal Frey immediately put his men at work on the matter. The hat which the negro had dropped in his flight was an unerring clue to his identity, for both Mrs. Sarracco and her servant-boy recognized it as belonging to a man of color, named John Thomas, -who had worked for the lady a few days previously. The boy Mahomet and the man had worked together in Mrs. Sarracco's garden, and the boy declared that Thomas had said to him, that from the way Mrs. Sarracco talked he thought she must have considerable money. Mr. Frey's first inquiries were for the residence of Thomas. Nobody knew where he lived, except that he had gone towards the city each night when through with his work. In the Baltimore directory, there were no less than twenty " John Thomas's," so that the search for the burglar bore a somewhat discouraging aspect at the beginning. The description of the man was as follows: He was a young fellow, about twenty-two years of age, about five feet six inches tall, dusky brown and of rather pleasing features, with woolly hair and small side whiskers. Deputy Marshal Frey set detectives near every house in which the directory said a John Thomas lived. They watched all day long and all night. On Wednesday three John Thomas's were arrested, none of whom proved to be the right one. On Wednesday evening the Deputy-Marshal himself set to watch on the building No28 Ross street, in which one John Thomas lived. At about eleven o'clock he was rewarded by seeing a man who answered the description of the would-be murderer enters the house. This man proved to be the right one. He was locked up in the Central District station-house until five o'clock the following afternoon when his examination took place before Police Justice Haggerty. In the meantime, Deputy-Marshal Frey had succeeded in getting a confession from the man, by confronting him with the evidence against him—his hat and the razor with which the cutting had been done. The razor had been found near Mrs. Sarracco's house after a long search by policeman Widdefield on Tuesday evening. It was clotted with blood and was discovered in the dust just outside of the gate, where the man in his flight had thrown it. The prisoner, when put upon the witness-stand, showed that he had not escaped from the conflict with his victim unscathed. His face and eyes were badly scratched and bruised. The clothes he wore on the night of the assault were shown in court. They were covered with large spots of blood. He was shown the razor and asked if it belonged to him. " Yes, it is mine," he replied; " it belonged to my father." The hat found in the dining-room was put on the prisoner's head and the boy Mahomet identified him as the man who had worked with him in the garden the week before. Thomas demanded a trial by jury, notwithstanding his confession. He was convicted and sentenced to twenty-one years' imprisonment in the Maryland State Penitentiary, where he died after serving about one-third of his sentence. During the trial, a sad accident happened to Mrs. Sarracco. One day as she was leaving the Court House she fell down the stone steps of the building and fractured her skull. She died from the effects of her wounds a short time afterward. A celebrated case which Deputy-Marshal Frey worked up and which was a sensation of national proportions, was that of Mrs. Ellen G. Wharton, charged with killing by tartar-emetic General W. Scott Ketchum. Mrs. Wharton was the wife of an officer in the United States Army. She came to this city about 1863. Independently of her husband's position, because of her character, her perfect cultivation of manner and her devotion as a wife and mother, she won her way into the best social circles of the city, and such a thing as a scandal of any kind and never been connected with her name. In the latter part of June 1871, the particulars of a horrible crime from Connecticut had shocked the whole country. An educated woman named Sherman, who moved in the best circles, had poisoned three husbands and several families, The case excited great interest in Baltimore, and when this interest was at its height, it began to be rumored that a tragedy of a somewhat similar character had been enacted in North Eutaw street. For days the newspaper reporters were all at sea. "The police had the case in hand, but they would say nothing until they had probed the mystery thoroughly. Then the following details came out: A retired officer of the United States Army, General Ketchum, left Washington on June 24 with the avowed purpose of going to Baltimore to collect $2,600 which he had lent to Mrs. Wharton, the widow of a brother officer for whom he had the most friendly regard. He did come to Baltimore and was taken ill at Mrs. Wharton's house a very few hours after he reached there. Doctor P. C. Williams, a well-known physician, attended him and discovered the symptoms of metallic poisoning. General Ketchum lingered until June 30, when he died. On the recommendation of Doctor Williams, who was convinced that there was foul play in the matter, the corpse was moved to a place where the cause of the death could be ascertained. Portions of the body were analyzed and twenty grains of tartar-emetic, a powerful metallic poison, were found in the stomach. Mrs. Wharton a few days afterward repaired to Washington and applied to the administrators of General Ketchum for $4,000 which she alleged she had deposited with the General. She was courteously but very decidedly repulsed, and the question was asked why she had not paid the $2,600 which General Ketchum had lent her? She replied that she had paid it on June 17, and had torn the note up. The General's books, however, showed that she had paid interest on the 25th of that month. Other circumstances seemed to condemn Mrs. Wharton. On the same day when General Ketchum was poisoned, Mr. Eugene Van Ness, Mrs. Wharton's confidential adviser, called to see her and was taken ill with the same symptoms that affected General Ketchum. For six days he languished between life and death, but happily, he was saved by the acuteness of his wife, who discovered sediment in the glass which held his nourishment. The police under Deputy-Marshal Frey worked up this case so thoroughly that not a link was missing in the chain of evidence. They showed where and when Mrs. Wharton had purchased quantities of tartar-emetic, and on the stand, Mr. Frey gave a long account of his interviews with Mrs. Wharton. The case was tried at Annapolis and consumed forty days. At every session, the courtroom was crowded, and the greatest interest was taken in the proceedings throughout the country. Nearly all the expert medical ability of Baltimore was brought into requisition, and the eminent counsel on both sides left no stone unturned. Dr. Edward Warren, the founder of Washington Medical College and dean of the institution advanced the opinion at the trial that General Ketchum had died of cerebra-spinal meningitis. This was the first time that that disease had ever been brought to the attention of the public in Baltimore. It is becoming known under such circumstances caused much comment among the people. The result, a verdict for acquittal, was doubtless a great disappointment to the public, for Mrs. Wharton was then generally believed to be guilty. A crime which stirred Baltimore to its depths as it was never stirred before was the Lampley murder. It took place on the night of January 2, 1873. John Lampley and his wife, both aged, resided in the eastern section of the city. The old gentleman had amassed a considerable fortune. He generally kept from $1,000 to $1,500 in his house, and this fact was known to his relatives. His wife's grand-daughter was the wife of Joshua Nicholson, and being on intimate terms with the Lampley family, Nicholson knew where the money was kept. Nicholson and Thomas R. Hollohan worked together in a tin can factory, and here began the acquaintance who made them partners in a most heinous crime and an ignominious death. On the night of the murder, Mr. Lampley had gone to the theatre, for the first time in thirty years, leaving his wife, who was seventy years of age, alone in the house. When some of the relatives returned later in the evening, she was found murdered, and the house robbed of $1,155 in notes and silver coin. The only clue was a chisel found in the alley-way with which a trunk containing the money had been broken open. A bundle of cakes, two pieces of pie and two apples that were found on a table wrapped up pointed to Nicholson, on the supposition that the pastry had been prepared for his two children by Mrs. Lampley, their great-grandmother. The working up of this case was' in the hands of Deputy-Marshal Frey, and the thoroughness with which he did the work was a most excellent tribute to his ability. On the day following the dreadful crime, the unmarred corpse of the aged victim was lying in the parlor of its former neat though modest home in Mulligan street near Bond Street. The room was filled -with weeping women and silent men, for the sudden taking away of the oldest neighbor's life in such a manner had cast more than a shadow of sorrow upon the community. Towards evening Detective Pontier, who had been assigned to the case by the Deputy-Marshal, stepped in upon the gathering and glanced carefully at the different faces that composed the group nearest the coffin. As he was turning away, his attention was attracted by a young woman beckoning to him. "You are the detective, are you not?" she asked, in a low tone. The policeman replied in the affirmative. " Well, I want to speak to you a moment alone. Follow me into the yard." The detective followed the young woman as she requested. When they were out of hearing distance from the other people she said: " Go into the parlor again; at the head of the corpse you will see a good-looking young man; if you are after the murderer of Mrs. Lampley, keep your eye on him." Thus saying the woman withdrew. Detective Pontier returned to the parlor. Seated at the head of the coffin was a young man who might answer the description of good-looking. He was gazing with a serious countenance upon the floor, from which he did not raise his eyes while the detective was watching him. A moment afterward the door opened, and a man entered whom Detective Pontier knew well. He was John English, one of the leaders of the " Plug Ugly" gang, and bore the reputation of being a bad character. He was the son-in-law of the murdered woman. The detective called English to him and taking him to one side, asked him: " Who is the young man at the head of the coffin? English started and gazed into space for a moment. Then turning to the detective, he replied impressively: "You are on the right track, I am afraid. That man is Josh Nicholson, the old lady's granddaughter's husband." The detective had heard of Nicholson before as being a person in ill-repute with the police, though he had never before been brought into contact with him. Turning again to English he said: " I "will go into the backroom and engage in conversation -with a lady. Come in and see who she is, and when I come out, tell me. Also, Detective Pontier went into the rear room and conversed with the young woman who had spoken to him before. When he returned to the parlor, English told him that he had been talking with Nicholson's wife. "Are you sure ?" demanded the officer, not believing it possible that a woman would have spoken concerning her husband as she had. " Perfectly sure. I know her well," replied English. The detective kept his own counsel but called the following day for further talk with Mrs. Nicholson. When he arrived at the house the woman, herself opened the door to admit him and called him to a room on the second floor so as to be out of hearing. " I think my husband and a man whom he brought home to dinner with him yesterday are the murderers of my grandmother," where the woman's first words. She spoke impressively but without a tremor in her voice. " Go downstairs now, and you will find him alone in the parlor. Ask him who the man is who was with him yesterday, and make him speak loud so that I can hear what he says. I will listen outside the door." The detective went to the parlor and found Nicholson there as his wife had said. " This is pretty bad business, ain't it, Josh?" began the policeman. "Awful," replied Nicholson, with a deep sigh. "She was a kind old grandmother to me." "Who was the man you brought home to dinner with you yesterday?" asked the detective suddenly, changing the subject. Nicholson colored. " I brought home with me ?" he stammered, " why I—oh, that was, er—er, that was—Tom Callahan."  Mr. Pontier seemed to take no notice of the man's embarrassment at the question, but continued: "Where does he live ?" " I do not know," replied Nicholson. "Well, -where does he work?" " I do not know that, either," returned the young man. At this, the detective turned away, and Nicholson, evidently glad to escape further questioning, went out of the room into the kitchen in the rear. As soon as he was gone his wife, who had been listening to the conversation, stepped from behind the door and said, excitedly: " Everything he has told you is a lie! That man's name is Hollohan, and he works at the same bench with Josh in the canning factory." The following day Pontier arrested Hollohan on suspicion, but Marshal Gray, considering the evidence against him insufficient, refused to hold the man. The detective continued his search for clues. The only one that was found for a long time was the chisel with a peculiar handle cut from a fresh twig, which was found in the snow by a policeman, and with which, it was believed, the closets and the bureau drawers had been opened by the murderers in their search for the plunder. Deputy-Marshal Frey had this chisel taken to every hardware shop, to every blacksmith, to every carpenter and every ship-builder in town, in the hope that he might find somebody who would recognize it. However, in vain. At last, after about a month's search, its owner was found. He was a deaf and dumb boy, the son of the lady who kept the boarding-house in which Hollohan lived. The boy had been presented with a tool-box and had replaced the first handle of the chisel with the one made of the piece of fresh twig. He had lived in the room which Hollohan occupied, previously to the man's coming to board with his mother, and when he moved out of the room, he left his tool-box behind with a few other articles in the closet. Having thus brought the chisel so near to Hollohan the Deputy-Marshal directed Pontier to arrest him again, and the man was locked up. Nicholson was also arrested. Efforts were begun to get a confession from one or both of the men. With Nicholson Mr. Pontier was successful. The man told the whole horrible story of the heartless crime. When he learned that his companion had confessed, Hollohan admitted that he was one of the murderers, only giving a different version of the story. This is Hollohan's story: " While working at my trade last autumn, at No. 99 South Bond-street, I made the acquaintance of Nicholson. About a month after, he invited me up to his house and introduced me to his wife. At the time I was very much pleased with my new acquaintance. A week or so after he asked me to take a ride with him down to Lower Canton; he had English's horse and buggy. He then told me about this old gentleman, Mr. Lampley, having a large amount of money in his house—$3,000 or $4,000. He then said: " ' Tom, we can make a good rise without any trouble.' " He told me how it could be done. He said that Mr. Lampley went into the country on Sunday a-fishing, and did not get home until late at night. He said he once lived in the house and knew where the money was kept. He knew that I had been in trouble once before, and he was no ways bashful in asking me to assist him. I consented to go with him. The day was appointed—it was one Sunday night—to carry out his plans. When he said that we would have to ' croak the old woman' (those are the very words he used), I suggested a better plan. I told him that if we hurt the old lady, he would be running a greater risk. I said that we could get the money without using any violence if he would dress in disguise; that we could talk the money out of the old lady. To that Nicholson would not consent, giving as his reasons that if the old lady were robbed, every one of the relatives would suspicion him and that if he ' croaked her,' no one would think that he would do it. I would not agree with him, so we gave it up that day. However, he mentioned it to me about a week before Christmas. He still wanted to ' croak' the old lady. I did not agree with him, and we gave the thing up at that time. I told him it was useless to run such a great risk when we could get the money without. He said the old lady would recognize him; that I could not do it by myself with safety. Nicholson did not say anything to me on that subject until the afternoon of January 2, 1873. I accidentally met him at No. 99 South Bond Street. He invited me up to his house. I went there. While there I was introduced to Mr. John Lampley by Mrs. Nicholson. I afterward accompanied Nicholson to his father's house, on Forrest Street, near Central Avenue. On our way there he told me what a splendid chance we could have to-night to get that money. He thought the old man would go to the theatre with John English, the latter's wife, and little boy. He was not certain that Mr. Lampley would go, but if I agreed to go with him that night, he said he would meet me at half-past 6 o'clock at Bond and Baltimore streets. We met there at the appointed time. He then told me that the old man had gone, so I agreed to go with him to help carry his plans out. We arrived at Mr. Lampley's house at about 7 o'clock. No one was there but this old lady. She was sitting in her working chair, a-sewing. Nicholson entered without knocking. She spoke to him very kindly. I followed him. Josh gave me an introduction. He said I was a friend of his; that I wanted her son John to do some papering for me. Nicholson asked this question to ascertain where John was. We talked then a little while when Mrs. Lampley got up and went to the cupboard and took from there a brown paper bag of cakes, telling Nicholson that she had put them up for his little children, that she intended to send them over to Nicholson's house that morning. Then she treated Nicholson and myself to some wine, saying that it was home-made. Nicholson stood behind her. I was standing by her side. Josh gave the signal. I grabbed her by the throat. At the same time, Nicholson struck her with his fist in the stomach. We then carried her into the other room and laid her on the carpet—she was dead. Nicholson ran out and fastened the gate and closed the window shutters. Everything was arranged between Nicholson and myself before we entered the house. Josh took the light and went up-stairs to get the money. I remained with Mrs. Lampley in the dark, and if John Lampley came in, I was to get away with him. I had my pistol with me.  "Nicholson made a considerable noise in prying the trunk open. I ran upstairs where he was, to caution him about making so much noise. He said: " 'Tom, I have got it opened.' " He then handed me the silver; he took the paper money. I did not remain up-stairs but a minute; we both went down together. He placed the lamp on the table and turned down the light. lie then handed me all the money. He took his umbrella with him. It was very dark and raining, and we went through the stable. Josh opened the gate that led out into a ten-foot alley. After we got out in Dallas street, he remarked that he was very sorry that those cakes were left upon the table. I asked him where the chisel was. He said he had thrown it into the alley. We separated at Eden and Fayette streets. He said he was going home. I then went down to my boarding-house. The money was not divided until a week after; in fact, the silver was never divided. We considered that it was dangerous property to handle at that time. I gave him $515 of the greenbacks the evening of the eighth of January. Since we have been arrested, I told him to have one of his friends get $300 that I had hidden in this city. They went for it but said they could not find it. I am satisfied they got it. I wanted to get it to fee a lawyer. If I had had my way, the old woman, Mrs. Lampley, would be alive today. There is one party that has been accused wrongfully, and that is Albert 0. Tucker. He did not know anything about it, nor never had any of the money. He is a man I would trust. I do believe if he had known of it he would have talked me out of the notion. I make this statement in justice to him. I have not screened myself. Everything that I have done I have stated. I know that I have broken the laws of God and man, and I am willing to give up my life, but I want Brother Nicholson on the same platform." The reference here to Nicholson was prompted by the latter's unsuccessful effort to turn all the guilt on Hollohan. The trial of this case at Annapolis was one of the most important and dramatic hearings ever occurring before the Maryland courts. The testimony was of the most startling character, filled with pathetic incidents, and having in it sufficient to cause the most intense feeling in the court-room. When the evidence had all been placed before the court, and Mr. Revell, who appeared for the State, was delivering his closing argument, Hollohan kept his gaze fixed upon Deputy-Marshal Frey, who was sitting near the attorneys' table chatting with some newspapermen. Mr. Revell made such a stirring speech that the attention even of the court officers was attracted to him, and they neglected watching the prisoners as carefully as they were expected to. Without a sound of warning, Hollohan sprang from the prisoners' box, and leaping over tables and chairs rushed up to the Deputy-Marshal and dealt him a lethal blow on the top of the head with a stocking which he had filled with pieces of iron and stone. Mr. Frey reeled backward for a moment—but only for one instant. The crowd in the court-room rushed forward, and the wildest excitement ensued, during which Hollohan dashed for the window and Nicholson for the door. Citizens pursued both ruffians, those after Hollohan crying: "Kill him! kill him!" With the blood streaming over his face and clothing from the wound the murderer had inflicted, Mr. Frey leaped towards Hollohan and placing his hand upon his shoulder exclaimed: " Stand back, gentlemen; this man belongs to the State; he has not been sentenced yet. Do not hit him." This magnanimity on the part of the deputy-marshal was regarded as extraordinary by the people of Maryland. He was widely praised, even Hollohan saying just before he was hanged: " I was aggravated against him, but when they were crying out: 'Kill him! kill him!' around me, and when I was overpowered, I heard him say: ' Do not hit him.' I was sorry I had struck him, for it proved him to be a brave and magnanimous man." Hollohan also said that his attack was directed mainly against chief-detective Crone. The conviction of the murderers ended the trial, and they were hanged on Friday, August 1, 1873.  The experience which brought out more fully than anything else the competence of the Baltimore police force was that received in the railroad riots of July 1877. At a time when the people lost their heads, the policemen in general and deputy marshal Frey in particular, were cool, brave and determined. The strike was caused by a reduction of ten percent, in the pay of the firemen on the freight engines of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The men claimed that they were already working at starvation wages, and could not afford to labor for less. The company declared that the depression in the general business interests of the country compelled the reduction, and made it unable to pay high wages. The firemen left their work on the morning of Monday, July 16, 1877. There were about a hundred of them at first. In many instances, they went out on their trains a few miles from the city, and when the engines stopped to take coal, they left their places, refusing to go any farther. At first, the strike seemed easy to manage, but as the first day wore on and news came that the trouble had reached Martinsburg and that the militia had been called out there, things became more serious. The police were promptly on hand. They were stationed in twos and threes, at various points between Baltimore and the Relay House, and a squad of twelve was at Camden Junction. The first day passed quietly, although few of the freight trains left the city, on the second day—Tuesday—the excitement began in the afternoon. A freight train of eighteen loaded cars from the West, bound for Locust Point, was partly wrecked utilizing a misplaced switch at a trestle near the foot of Leadenhall Street, Spring Garden, and the engine and several cars were thrown into a gulley. News, too, arrived off the fight at  Martinsburg, in which two firemen were shot. At night the employees of the Baltimore and Ohio Company held a meeting and decided to support the strikers, but first to try conciliation with the company. Conciliation failed, and the strike went on. On Wednesday, the third day of the troubles, the West Virginia authorities called on President Hayes for troops, and the President at once issued a proclamation. Troops were promptly sent. Of course, all this had its effect in Baltimore, but on that day there were no hostile demonstrations here. The freight business amounted practically to nothing, but the passenger trains arrived as usual. The Company decided "not to recede from its position, and it offered a reward of $500 for the arrest of the person or persons who caused the Spring Garden wreck. On the fourth day the troubles continued in Martinsburg, but, there was no outbreak in Baltimore until the next day. Baltimore was more excited than it had been since the war. About 3 o'clock in the afternoon of Friday, when the news had been received that the strike at Cumberland threatened to assume general proportions, Governor Carroll held a consultation with the officers of the Baltimore and Ohio Company, and became convinced that the presence of the military at Cumberland was necessary for the preservation of peace and order. A half hour later he issued an order to Brigader-General Herbert, commanding the First Brigade, M. N. G., ordering him to proceed to Cumberland. Simultaneously he issued a proclamation calling upon the rioters to desist. Soon afterward General Herbert held another consultation with Governor Carroll to consider whether the military should be summoned to their respective armories by a " military call" from the bells. Governor Carroll objected to this, and General Herbert-tried to get the men at the armories by the ordinary means, but not succeeding very well, again asked the Governor that the bells be rung. This was done, and a great misfortune it proved. At twenty minutes of 6 o'clock, the call—1—5—1—was sounded from the City Hall and fire bells. The people knew what it meant, and in a short time, the streets around the armories were filled with men and boys of all ages who sympathized with the strikers. It was about the time that the work in the factories was over, and all the workmen helped to swell the crowds. In front of the armory of the Sixth Regiment, at Fayette and Front streets, the mob numbered at least 2,000. Strangely enough, the officers of the regiment sent word to the police headquarters, asking that police officers be sent to clear the way so that the regiment could march on to Camden station. The old system then in vogue scattered the policemen, so that not enough of them could be collected in time for the work, and in two hours the crowd was so large that no force was able to handle it. The troubles at the Sixth regiment armory began at about seven o'clock. A brick-bat was thrown into one of the windows. Four policemen—Officers Albert Whitely, James Jamison, Oliver Kenly, and Roberts—were stationed at the door, and despite the volleys of stones and missiles and jeers that followed they manfully stood their dangerous guard, although the four militiamen who had been with the policemen had been called in.- The hour set for marching was 8.15 o'clock, and the crowd had become maddened and aggressive. The companies, however, determined to pass the rioters. When they appeared on the street, there was a riot so general that it drove the men back again into the building. The next time they came out they had orders to fire. The first company fired high, but the attack became so heavy on the following companies that they discharged their weapons into the crowd. From that instant all along the march to Camden station the firing was continuous and general, resulting in the killing of about a dozen people and the serious wounding of as many more. The Fifth regiment did not use its guns, although it was severely attacked and had every provocation to fire. The men marched admirably through showers of stones and other missiles. There were 250 of them. At the junction of Camden and Eutaw streets, a solid mass of rough-looking men blocked their passage. They came to a halt for a moment, and although the bricks were falling fast, Captain Zollinger counseled his men not to fire. Then he ordered them to prepare to double-quick with their fixed bayonets into the depot. Drawing his sword, Captain Zollinger shouted to the mob to give way, which the command might pass. A brawny man opposed the captain, who promptly knocked him down, and amid the hoots and yells and several shots from the crowd the regiment charged into the depot. Soon after the regiment had reached the station the building was set on fire, and the rioters attempted to interfere with the firemen, but fortunately, in this, they did not succeed, and the flames were extinguished. The valiant service that the police did in these exciting hours has never been publicly acknowledged except by brief paragraphs in the newspapers. In every instance, they awed the mob, while the soldiers incensed it. One policeman was equal to a dozen soldiers. Until long after midnight the police protected the military and guarded all the depot buildings. It was the police who protected the firemen and the engines and hose and thus saved the buildings. They were fired upon by the mob, and some -were wounded, but they wounded a number of the mob, and also made numerous arrests. The result of the great excitement was that the order sending the soldiers to Cumberland was rescinded, and Mayor Latrobe issued a proclamation to that effect. During these days the efficiency of the police was tried and proved. Deputy-Marshal Frey had command in and around Camden station. For nearly seventy hours he went without sleep. Single-handed, long before any officers could be assembled, on Friday previous to the arrival of the military, he cleared the platform and front pavement of several hundred excited men, and when reinforced arrested two of the ringleaders and took them to the Southern police station himself. On Saturday night crowds again collected around Camden station. About 9 P. M. a fire-alarm excited the rioters so that they rushed towards the lines that the police had formed. The rioters fired shots, and several officers fell wounded. Then it was that Deputy-Marshal Frey told the men to keep steady, and a moment afterward, their pistols being drawn, the command of " Take aim—Fire " was given. They fired low, and as they fired they rushed forward, and each officer grabbed a prisoner. Fifty arrests were made; several men were killed and a number wounded. There was another outbreak at 11 o'clock, and fifty-three more arrests were made. On Sunday morning large crowds again collected around the Camden Station, and they were closely pressing upon the picket lines of the Fifth Regiment. Deputy Marshal Frey, not liking the looks of things, sent for a squad of twenty policemen. When they arrived, the Deputy-Marshal took charge of them in person. He told the crowd that he was going to " clear that street," and he advised all peaceably disposed of persons to go home. Many of them did so, but many more remained. Turning to his men, the Marshal gave orders to "Forward," and in a short time, the rioters were driven away. They knew the Deputy-Marshal, and they were afraid of him. When the riot had assumed such threatening proportions, every effort was made to protect the city. United States soldiers from New York and other cities were promptly ordered to Baltimore. General W. S. Hancock arrived with eight companies of troops from New York harbor, and two war vessels with 560 men, fully equipped, anchored in the Patapsco. Several hundred special policemen were sworn in by the Police Board. Among them were such well-known citizens as William M. Pegram, Alexander M. Green, C. Morton Stewart, Frank Frick, E. Wyatt Blanchard, James H. Barney, J. L. Hoffman, Robert G. Hoffman, W. Gilmore Hoffman, John Donnell Smith, William A. Fisher, Frederick von Kapff, and Washington B. Hanson. They were supplied with the regular badges, and they did good work. The regular policemen were unfaltering in their duty, and most of them did not sleep for more than fifty hours. The great show of strength by the police and troops overawed the rioters, and the troubles were gradually quieted. The following Saturday freight trains, each guarded by ten soldiers, moved out on the road. The strikes in other cities continued, more or less, but within two weeks they were over. Trouble on the Northern Central road was happily averted. The jury of the inquest which sat upon the man killed by the Sixth Regiment was very thorough in its investigations, and after several days consumed in taking testimony, it rendered a verdict which found the rioters guilty of the troubles but charged the regiment with shooting too hastily and too indiscriminately. It found fault because there were not more policemen on hand around the armory. This, however, was purely the fault of the military authorities in not giving sufficient notice to the Marshal. The part that the police force took in the memorable conflict will ever stand a monument to its courage and efficiency. One of the most curious bank cases in the criminal history of the city was that of July 1880. Cleary, Bell, and Wilson, expert burglars, came to Baltimore in June for " cleaning out" the town as far as they could. By selling Government bonds, they secured the checks of well-known brokers and made from them counterfeit lithograph blanks. Only one thing remained for them to do, and that was to ascertain from each firm the correct number of its checks for the day, so as to have everything regular on the face of the forged drafts. They did this by selling another government bond to each firm. The first bank victimized was the Merchants' National, at Gay and Second streets. On Friday, July 17, just before the close of business hours, an elderly man, of about fifty years, dignified and businesslike, went into the Merchants' National Bank and presented to Mr. Morris, the paying teller, a check for $2,630, drawn in Mr. J. Harmanus Fisher's name, on his own peculiar blank, with government stamp in the center, and all correct. The money was promptly paid over. On Saturday morning the man returned with another check for $3,920. This too was paid after scrutiny, and after being passed upon casually by a clerk from Mr. J. IT. Fisher's office who happened to be in the bank at the time. Later on in the day a third check was brought in and cashed for the same party. The suspicions of Mr. Morris, the teller, were aroused, and he took the checks to Mr. Fisher's office, where they were pronounced forgeries. This was not an end of the schemes, however. On the same Friday morning, a young man went into the banking house of Messrs. Middendorf & Oliver and tendered for sale a $100 bond. It was readily bought, and at his request, he was given a check for $50 and the remainder in cash. About an hour later another stranger sold another bond to the same firm and got a check in payment. A half hour afterward a third person made a similar sale with the same result. About two o'clock a handsomely dressed young fellow walked into the Third National Bank, went up to the outer desk, endorsed his name on the back of a check and handed it to Mr. W. B. Medairy, the paying teller, to be cashed. Mr. Medairy looked at it. It was issued by Middendorf & Oliver, and was for the sum of $1,294.50, and endorsed on the back by W. Henry Murdock. All appeared to be correct, but Mr. Medairy said that the handsomely dressed young man would have to be identified. "Oh," said the young man, "then I shall step around to get the endorsement of the firm to my signature." He did step around and was gone just about long enough to go to the office and back. He returned with the alleged indorsement upon which the ink was not half dry. The money was paid. The same afternoon about five minutes past three o'clock another man ran hurriedly into the same bank and asked to deposit some money. He offered a check on Middendorf & Oliver for §1,396, drawn up in due form with his alleged name (D. M. Kimball) on the back, authenticated apparently by Messrs. Middendorf & Oliver. The teller refused at first to cash the check as business hours had closed, but the man was so importunate that he finally cashed it. The fellow took the whole amount and left nothing on deposit. When Mr. Medairy balanced his books, he found a discrepancy, and he went around to Messrs. Middendorf & Oliver to see about it. Then, of course, the forgeries were discovered. The swindlers tried their same game on the Western National Bank, but they were foiled by the special caution of Mr. Charles Nolting, the paying teller. Deputy-Marshal Frey worked up this case. The result was that George Bell, Henry Clcary, and Charles Farren were arrested in New York on July 27, and were arraigned on the day following. The Baltimore bankers recognized Bell and Cleary, but Farren was discharged. Both Bell and Cleary had interesting criminal records. Bell is still in the penitentiary in Baltimore. Cleary was released on March 17, 1887, and went South. Wilson, who was afterward found to be connected with the gang, is serving a nine years term at Kingston, Ontario. Deputy-Marshal Frey brought Bell from New York on August 18, 1880, and the latter was promptly tried and convicted in the criminal court of this city. There were previous charges in other cities against the two other men. A complete history of this crime is contained in a subsequent chapter.  Marshal Frey profited largely by the experience he received in the riots of 1877, and ever since that time he has kept the force always prepared for emergencies. In the spring of 1886, nearly every large city in the country had its labor troubles, and the most difficult affairs to handle were the strikes of the street-car men. In April it became evident that there was going to be a strike in Baltimore. Mr. Frey expected it and was fully prepared for it three days before it began. So complete was his arrangements and so thoroughly did he have everything in hand, that on the day of the strike, Wednesday, April 14, noon, by the time the cars got into their depots, he had policemen at the stables and all along the line of the roads. The people did not know that a strike had occurred until they saw the officers. Marshal Frey says that a Baltimore crowd is very easily managed so long as it is kept in good humor, and so long as hot-headed persons are prevented from getting together with the idea of arousing excitement and disturbance. He acted on this theory during that strike. The people were kept moving. Whenever any excitement began the crowd producing it was promptly broken up. In this way, the trouble passed over without serious outbreaks of any kind, and although it lasted two weeks, good order was maintained as though nothing unusual was going on. The linger trunk mystery is too fresh in the public mind to need a long description. On Sunday morning, January 23, 1887, a trunk was received at the Adams Express warehouse on North Street, addressed to " John A. Wilson, Baltimore. To be called for." No one called for it, and on Wednesday it began to smell so bad, that manager James Shuter determined to open it. He did so, but such a horrible stench issued from it that everybody was driven away. Mr. Shuter at once telephoned to headquarters, and Captain Farnan sent to the office the patrol-wagon, in which were officers Slaysman, Jefferson Lutts and John Doyle. They took the trunk to the Central Station. Captain Farnan and some of the officers in the station re-opened it to ascertain its contents. They took out a calico shirt, a torn woolen shirt and a coat which had been cut in half. The heavy brown paper was then opened, and there was a sight that even the policemen could hardly stand. Packed in the box was the trunk of a human body. The body looked as if it had been doubled up, with the legs under the back, so as to make it fit into the receptacle. On one side of the trunk were the left arm and the feet, which had been cut off. The other arm was tucked under the body. Cards on the man and inscriptions on the trunk were the only clues to the mystery. Marshal Frey sent the following telegram: INSPECTOR BYRNES, Police Headquarters, New York: The headless body of a man was found in a trunk at Adams Express office this P. M. It came from your city; was delivered to Adams by Westcott Express on Saturday last. Adams will be notified to communicate with you. We will hold the body as long as possible. In the trunk were found some cards of Henry Siegel, 205 Throop Avenue, Brooklyn. On the shirt is found the name of C. Kaufhold. JACOB FREY, Marshal. Inspector Byrnes and his men worked up the case at once, and the mystery was soon solved in the arrest on January 27 of Edward Unger for the murder of August Bohle. Inspector Byrnes drew out of him a confession by suddenly confronting him with the bloody evidence of his crime. The interesting feature of the trial which followed was the description of the killing by Unger. He acted the whole tragedy before the jury, and it had a powerful effect. Unger got off with a twenty years' sentence, but as he is an old man this practically amounts to a life term. At the close of the case, Inspector Byrnes paid this tribute to Marshal Frey: " He is one of the very foremost police officers in the country. It was half-past nine Wednesday night when the details he sent were given me, and so complete was they, fully covering every necessary point and line of information, that by their aid I was able to spot my man and arrest him eighteen hours after. Baltimore is lucky in having Marshal Frey at the head of its police department." Marshal Frey has been unusually successful in getting confessions out of criminals. His work in the " burking" case last year, the particulars of which will be found in the next chapter, when he led the accused man, Ross, to narrate the particulars of his crime, are well remembered. A somewhat similar case was that of the negro, George H. Williams, alias William Henry, who assaulted Mrs. Mary J. Ridley in Druid Hill Park, on May 2-1887. Henry confessed to the Marshal and said that he had attacked the lady for purposes of robbery. There are dozens more of interesting cases which Marshal Frey has handled with his usual success. Those, however, that have been cited show the extent, and excellence of his work and prove his right to be considered one of the best and bravest police officers in the country. The important Udderzook-Goss insurance case was prosecuted under Marshal Frey's direction. Udderzook was an insurance agent in this city. He entered into a conspiracy with Goss to defraud several companies for which he was an agent. Udderzook insured Goss for a large amount, and the two then caused a body to be burned at a fire on York road, which Udderzook pretended to recognize as that of Goss. The conspiracy was discovered, and facts were ferreted out by Marshal Frey which led to the arrest of the two men, and the confession of Goss. Mr. Frey's commission as Marshal dates from October 15, 1885. He was married in 1858. He has four children, and he occupies a comfortable home in one of the prettiest sections of Northwest Baltimore. He is in the prime of life, and with the past for a prophet, there can be no doubt as to the brilliance and usefulness of his future. The Marshal's clerk since 1870 has been Dr. George W. Wentz, He was appointed under Marshal Gray and was continued in office under Marshal Frey. Dr. Wentz was born in this city on March 6, 1836. He was graduated as a physician but did not practice, preferring the profession of journalism, which he followed until his appointment as Marshal's clerk, to accept which office he resigned his position on the staff of the old Baltimore Gazette. 

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