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EVER EVER EVER Motto DivderDay 1

 

Welcome to Ken’s Statement Analysis course, this course is for active or invited retired Baltimore police only. In 1993 Ken was injured in the line of duty to a point where they were going to suggest he retired 66 2/3’s. Ken spoke with Dr. Frank T. Barranco MD, and the two came up with an agreement that if Ken could learn a skill that would make him more valuable to the department and possibly get him into an investigative unit, he would allow him to stay. Ken learned the courses that he is about to teach you. This course was approved as an introductory course and will teach you how to interview suspects, what to look for in statements, and how to gather information while talking to suspects and victims alike. This has been used to clear or convict a suspect.

This course could be taken in a single day, but there is a lot of information and could lead to your becoming overwhelmed, so I suggest you take Ken’s advice and do this over the course of five or more days. These are real cases; Ken worked and cleared them while working in the Major Crime Unit at Central District, he did change the names, and streets but the wording is otherwise unchanged. At the end of each day, we ask that you answer the questions and send them to Ken at his email address This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. Before you start, I would ask that you write a statement as if you were robbed, Obviously, this will be a false statement but it will serve as a training tool later in the course. Let's assume you work at a local Walmart and want to stage a robbery. If you do this before starting the course, you might find it to be a productive learning tool for years to come. Once you have this done, you can start your training here at - http://baltimorecitypolicehistory.com/qr-1 then tomorrow you’ll go to http://baltimorecitypolicehistory.com/qr-2 followed by http://baltimorecitypolicehistory.com/qr-3 http://baltimorecitypolicehistory.com/qr-4 and http://baltimorecitypolicehistory.com/qr-5

Day 1

What Does a Statement Really Tell Us?

In statement analysis, investigators compare and examine words from within an interviewee's written or transcribed statement. We look for information within the statement itself, independent of case facts, and to detect deception if it exists.

Therefore, to begin our course we’ll take a look at information as taught by the FBI and other statement analysis training centers. From there, we’ll get into more sophisticated training that can only be learned through our training courses.

One relevant example of how a person's words can indicate deception is provided by the notorious Susan Smith case. In that case, Susan Smith stood outside her burgundy sedan and released the parking brake. Her car drifted down a boat ramp and into South Carolina’s Long Lake. Her sons, Michael, age 3, and Alexander, age 14 months, were strapped into their car seats and drowned. To cover her actions, Smith told police that her boys were abducted at gunpoint. This launched a nationwide search for her boys and the alleged kidnapper. During the investigation, Smith tearfully told reporters:

"My children wanted me. They needed me… and now I can't help them."

David, Michael and Alexander’s father, tried to reassure Susan by saying:

"They're okay. They're going to be home soon."

As many are aware, Susan Smith was later arrested for murdering her children. She was tried and convicted and is currently serving a life sentence in a South Carolina correctional institution.

Many investigators use a technique called “SCAN” or “statement analysis” to determine the truth in statements like the ones given by Susan and David Smith. In statement analysis, investigators examine the words of a statement, independent of case facts, to analyze the information and to detect deception if it is present. Investigators then analyze the clues unintentionally provided by a writer or speaker and use these insights during a subsequent investigation or interview.

In the case of Susan Smith, by analyzing the statements made by the victims' parents, we can easily conclude that the father believed the boys were alive while the mother knew the children were dead. The key to this conclusion can be found by examining simple grammar, specifically verb tense. The father referred to the children in the present tense. By contrast, the mother referred to them in past tense. Of all times, when speaking of how her "abducted" children would really need their mother, she speaks of them in the past tense, e.g., “My children wanted me...They needed me." In Susan Smith's mind, the children could no longer want or need her in the present tense because they were no longer alive. Her language reveals that she already knew they were dead when they were only supposed to be missing…and that can only mean one thing.

Susan SMITH said, "My children wanted me. They needed me. and now I can't help them."

David SMITH said, "They're (or They “are” ) okay and they're going to be home soon."

In cases of missing, runaway, or abducted children, a parent will most commonly assume the best option possible: that is, they will believe the missing child is still alive until proven otherwise.

Investigative tip: Reports of Missing Persons

In missing person(s) cases, an effective opening question in an interview might be, “Tell me about (missing person’s name),” then look at the verb tense in the interviewee's answer to determine if s/he should be considered a witness, a reporting person… or a suspect.

Example: When asked to describe his missing wife the writer said,

"God, the first word that comes to mind is, you know, glorious, I mean we took care of each other, very well. She was amazing. She is amazing,"

The fact that he corrected himself doesn’t erase the fact that he referred to her in the past tense.

When asked, "Did you murder your wife?" he gave the following answer:

"I had absolutely nothing to do with her disappearance, and you used the word murder, Yeah, I mean, that is a possibility. It's not one we’re ready to accept and it creeps into my mind late at night, and early in the morning,"

Notice: The inquiry coming from the suspicion that the speaker may have KILLED his wife, yielded the question, “Did you MURDER your wife?” to which he answered, “I had absolutely nothing to do with her DISAPPEARANCE”. First, are the words MURDER and DISAPPEARANCE synonyms? The answer; there are no synonyms in a statement. Second, did he answer the question, and if he didn’t, then he did.

Of further interest in regards to this case, the writer said,

"I believe it was about 9:30, that morning, the reason being that we started to watch Martha Stewart Living, while Laci was working in the kitchen and I left sometime during that"

These statements were given five months before her body was found. The question becomes; if everyone else thought of her as missing, and he already knew she was dead, could it be that he killed her?

If you haven’t figured it out by now, these statements came from Scott Peterson; in the last statement, Scott mentioned the time of 9:30; It is interesting to note that statistically many criminals put the time of the crime inside their statement. This means that if any “objective time” is mentioned in the statement, the reader/listener should ask themselves if this time corresponds to the time of the crime. If it does, then there should be a serious suspicion that the writer/speaker might have committed the crime.

Therefore it is quite possible that Scott Peterson killed his wife Laci Peterson around 9:30 am in the kitchen of there home just before he left.

This training gives us an introductory level overview of statement analysis. In it, we will examine four main components of statement analysis:

A. Parts of Speech ( pronouns, nouns, and verbs ),

B. Irrelevant/Unconnected Information,

C. Lack of Conviction,

D. The balance of the Statement.

We will mention the use of the FAST macro throughout, however, our macro is not necessary to analyze statements, it helps speed the process up some but you can analyze statements without the macro

The Technique

Statement analysis follows a simple two-step process. First, investigators determine what is typical of a truthful statement, referred to as the NORM. They then look for any deviation from this NORM and from there they begin to ask questions. Truthful statements differ from deceptive statements in both content and quality. The easiest way to remember it is this: truth comes from memory while deception is built by logic. To detect the underlying logic of a statement is an analyst's primary function.

Although spoken words can be analyzed, investigators inexperienced in statement analysis will find it easier to begin by examining written statements. Investigators can either make transcripts of oral statements, or they can have a suspect write a statement that details what they did from the time they woke up until the time they went to bed. (The best question to ask to obtain an open statement is an open question, something like tell us what happened.) This account, because it is presented in the suspect's own words, provides a totally untainted version of the events and increases the validity of the analysis. Statement analysis is an aid that can be used to obtain a confession; it is not an end in itself. Therefore, whenever possible, investigators should analyze the statement before interviewing the suspect.

Reading the Statement

In short, the main concern about reading a statement is to avoid being captivated by the story itself; we have to focus our primary attention on the language, while still reading the story and following its events. In other words, we have to follow the chain of events as they are described in the statement while noting the language used to do so.

I prefer reading the statement over once, to see what the writer was, “trying to say”, then going back over it in “analyst mode” to see what the writer “really said”

In order to best accomplish this objective, it is recommended to get a second copy of the statement to mark your observations on. You should never mark your original, and it is ill-advised to let the writer see what you have marked on their statement.

NOTE: If you are using our FAST Macro, it will automatically copy your original statement, and paste it into a new document before beginning the markup process. This will enable you to go over the marked-up document without fear of destroying your original file.

What’s in the “Content” of the Statement - Recognizing the Different Points

The points or clues in a statement that guide us in regard to the content are specific for each case. In other words, each case is different and should be analyzed that way.

The following is a list of "keywords" that are helpful toward for providing insight into the writer, or into the incident itself.

Generally speaking, all statement consists of five elements:

1. People.

2. Objects.

3. Activities.

4. Locations.

5. Time. ( Our training won't deal with "Time" )

1. People

Assuming you are marking the statement up on the computer, when we encounter any person mentioned in the statement, we should change the text to green underline the names/words and put ourselves on alert to see how the writer relates to the same person later on in the statement.

When we encounter a language change in regard to a person, we should note the change, and check it to see how it relates to the activities in that part of the statement. It can be helpful to connect the names with a line, “Microsoft Word” has a built-in draw tool feature, that allows it’s users to draw and connect the boxes with a line. (note the draw tool will not allow us to draw a line from one page to another, but hey we can’t do that on paper either J )

Since a statement is given in regard to a specific crime, as the analyst we should check to see if there are any language changes at the time which is estimated to be the time of the crime.

In most cases, we relate to other people more than to objects or events. People play a major role in our lives. Therefore, we should pay attention to the way people are introduced into a statement, the order they enter the statement, and whether the writer changes his/her language in regard to the people. For instance, if the writer "upgrades" or "downgrades" a person during the statement, this would expose the writer's emotions, attitudes, or even the occurrence of an event which the writer didn't tell us about.

A "person" does not always mean a proper name.

For example, "Linda", "my wife” “my husband", "company", "the group". In this category, we would also include “phone calls”, “letters” “pagers/beepers” and “pets”.

In the following statement notice how the people are introduced;

“I woke up at 6:30 and went out to the kitchen to pour myself a cup of coffee; I took a hot shower and got dressed then I headed out the door for work it was around 7:30. As I was pulling out of the yard I remembered I forgot my toolbox, and I wanted to take my dog “Bandit” to the job site with me to show the guys So I had to go back into the house to get him. I guess it was about 7:35 While I was in there I went to the bedroom to say goodbye to Linda after that we left the house it was around twenty of eight. We went to work on a construction site out in Monkton, after work, I wanted to head straight home, but had to stop off and get gas in my truck, Monkton is a long way from the house so I burn a lot of gas going to and from work every day. Once we arrived home it was about 5:30 quarter to six. I found Linda in my room and she was not breathing. I called 911 and the police and medics arrived to pronounce her dead. Now I’m here and that’s about all I can say.”

Notice the people mentioned

My dog “Bandit” - his dog gets a proper social introduction

The guys- to some extent the guys at work received an introduction

Linda - who is Linda, is it his wife, his girlfriend, his mother, his sister… we don’t know, she was given an improper introduction, which amounts to a poor relationship.

2. Objects

A. These are dependent upon the statement.

B. If the statement deals with missing money on the job, then we should be on alert for the following words: bills, cash, currency, deposit, money.

C. If the statement deals with an insurance case, then we would want to check the item in question: jewelry, house, car, vehicle, etc.

D. If the statement deals with a violent crime, then we should be on alert for names of weapons, such as pistol, revolver, gun, knife, etc. and keep a count of the weapons, often the writer will add weapons and change the name of the weapon, i.e. “the gun” to “the pistol” or “the gun” to “the guns”

Also when dealing with violent crimes, we should be on alert for interaction between people, husbands and wives, victims and suspects. Parents and children.

3. Activities

A. Getting up - Going to sleep.

B. Food - breakfast, lunch, and dinner; drinking coffee.

C. Communication.

D. Watching TV.

E. Returning home.

These activities are the "main" activities of the day. However, there might be other activities to be checked, depending on the specifics of the statement. For example, in a drive-by shooting incident: driving, stopping, parking.

In the aforementioned case

“I went to the bedroom to say goodbye to Linda after that we left the house it was around twenty of eight. ”

He doesn’t actually tell us he said goodbye… only that he went to the bedroom to say goodbye.

4. Locations

House, home, apartment, place, residence, room, office, department, desk, bed, yard.

An important thing to look for while studying the use of locations are language changes, “My house” to “The house” - “our bedroom” to “the bedroom” or worse ‘our bedroom” to “my bedroom”. Also look for perspective, “here” or “there” in regard to locations. And look to see if the word “back” is near the location, as in “he said he had left the crowbar behind. So, I went back later that night and got the crowbar.” This came from a witness that was claiming not to have been at the location of the burglary; yet when he told us he, “went back later” he unintentionally admitted to us that he was there earlier

In the previous statement, you’ll notice the writer referred to the bedroom and house in several ways

“I woke up at 6:30 and went out to the kitchen to pour myself a cup of coffee; I took a hot shower and got dressed then I headed out the door for work it was around 7:30. As I was pulling out of the yard I remembered I forgot my toolbox, and I wanted to take my dog “Bandit” to the job site with me to show the guys So I had to go back into the house to get him. I guess it was about 7:35 While I was in there I went to the bedroom to say goodbye to Linda after that we left the house it was around twenty of eight. We went to work on a construction site out in Monkton, after work, I wanted to head straight home, but had to stop off and get gas in my truck, Monkton is a long way from the house so I burn a lot of gas going to and from work every day. Once we arrived home it was about 5:30 quarter to six. I found Linda in my room and she was not breathing. I called 911 and the police and medics arrived to pronounce her dead. Now I’m here and that’s about all I can say.”

Notice: the language change from, “the bedroom” to “my room” also it was “the house” several times before becoming “home” these changes are meaningful and when combined with other information that we’ll cover as we go on could help to solve this case

Important parts of speech

Examining parts of speech forms the foundation of statement analysis. To analyze a statement investigators first need to examine the individual parts of speech, particularly pronouns, nouns, and verbs, and to establish the NORM for each. If a deviation from the NORM appears, they then should ask, "Why?"

Pronouns

Pronouns are parts of speech that take the place of nouns. Common examples of personal pronouns include I, me, you, he, she, it, we, and they. In statement analysis, particular attention should be given to the personal pronouns "I" and "we" and all possessive pronouns such as my, our, your, his, her, etc. The pronoun "I" is extremely important to a witness/victim/suspect statement. Investigators have noted that truthful people normally give statements using the pronoun "I," which is first person singular. Any deviation from this NORM deserves close scrutiny, as it could be an indication that the person is not totally committed to the facts in the statement and, therefore, is not telling the whole truth.

The following written narrative begins with a clear commitment, then shows a definite lack of commitment:

"I got up at 6:30 when my alarm clock went off. I took a shower and got dressed. I decided to go out for breakfast. I went to the Denny's down the street. Met a woman who lives nearby. Talked with her for a few minutes. I finished breakfast and drove home."

The same statement with a pronoun “markup”:

"I got up at 6:30 when my alarm clock went off. I took a shower and got dressed. I decided to go out for breakfast. I went to the Denny's down the street. Met a woman who lives nearby. Talked with her for a few minutes. I finished breakfast and drove home."

Broken down into an exploded view, you can see the missing “I”:

1. I got up at 6:30 when my alarm clock went off.

2. I took a shower and got dressed.

3. I decided to go out for breakfast.

4. I went to the Denny's down the street.

5. Met a woman who lives nearby.

6. Talked with her for a few minutes.

7. I finished breakfast and drove home

The first four sentences of the statement match the NORM: the speaker uses first person singular (the pronoun "I") and clearly establishes commitment to that part of the statement. However, the next two sentences show a deviation from the NORM because the pronoun "I" is missing/omitted from the statement. It’s not just a missing pronoun, which in itself, is meaningful. But, we also have a clear change in language.

Another rule to remember in statement analysis is that a change in language is a change in reality. What causes the writer to stop using the pronoun "I"? Any change in the use of pronouns is significant, and at this point, investigators should realize that the moment in which the writer stops using "I" to describe his actions is the moment when the statement has become devoid of personal involvement. Could there be tension between the writer and the woman mentioned in the statement? During the interview, investigators should draw out specifics about this relationship to determine if this part of the narrative is true or if there is a reason the writer left out information.

Missing pronouns

Be on alert for the following:

A first sentence that starts with no pronoun. Keep in mind sometimes a missing “I” could be a missing “we” In cases of a missing pronoun, put parentheses before the first word to indicate the missing pronoun. i.e. ( missing “I” or “we” )

Example: “ pulled into the driveway” should be marked as follows “(Missing “I” or “we” ) pulled into the driveway”

Any noun which is not preceded by a possessive pronoun - "my", "his", "her", or "our". In general, when possessive pronouns are omitted, they are replaced by the words/articles "a", or "the". These articles should be circled; or changed to bold and underlined then, on the margin of that line, write the word "my" and cross it out to indicate that in that line there is a missing possessive.

( FAST will find and replace and the and convert them to “a” and “the” )

Usually, the word "with" used between two people indicates distance and a missing "we". Therefore, if you encounter the word "with", underline it; then write "we" on the margin and cross it out - to indicate a "missing we".

( FAST will replace “with” with “with ( = separation )” say that three time fast )

The Missing “I”

The question about education level often comes up in regard to written statements; this statement was written by a doctor

10:50 am approx. left Rossville office via rt. 40 came into Pleasant Street last parking spot empty on the rt. side of the street next to MD. Nation's Bank Gaulle Parking Garage. parked the jeep put all my mail, journals, magazines and paper on top seat (passenger side seat covered the telephone with papers in the console, put the club on locked the jeep checked the doors, went to my office at 321 N Calvert St. next door. Came out to go to the bank at 12:10 noon. Saw police cars (2) surrounding my jeep the siren/lights flashing on I ran to the jeep. The officer told me that my car has been broken into he (officer) had opened the door I peeped in everything was scattered all over Jacket was missing checked for the telephone was missing, made the report to the officer. There was a worker crew across the street curiously? Looking at me but deny anyone seeing any think. I had cashed two checks / my wife cashed the third check. Brought the cash home she did not get the time to go to the bank but I volunteered to take the money to the bank.

Notice the missing pronoun “I” throughout the beginning of this statement. This missing “I” is an indication that deception may be present in the statement and should lead investigators to question the writer more closely.

The Lowercase “i”

Me and Kalia was down Lexington Market. And she was talking to some dude and i guess she didn’t want to go no where with him so he said you going with me and i guess he showed her a gun and his two other friends grab me like and said you going they said they had a gun when we got to the motel i was crying they was just standing around and one of the men’s said man let’s take them home cause she keeps on crying and i don’t want to get in trouble and they let us off back at Lexington Market.

Notice the presence of the lowercase “i” throughout this statement. A lower case “I” is the equivalent of a missing “I,” and as with the missing “I,” it is an indication that deception may be present; it too should lead investigators to question the writer more closely.

Further information within this statement

1. Me and Kalia...

(In this case, the order of appearance and introduction can be attributed to poor grammar, or it can be a sign of a bad relationship.)

...was down Lexington Market...

2....and she was talking...

(Mentioning talking in an open statement usually indicates the conversation was important and may have had something to do with the incident or the reason for the statement. It is very important to follow up on this reported conversation during your interview.)

3....and i guess...

(aside from the lowercase I, which we’ve already covered, saying “I guess” is non-committal and can be an indication of deception.)

...she didn’t want to go no where with him...

4....so...

Using the word so is a signal that the writer will be explaining why something happened. However, in a statement, the writer has been asked only what happened. When a suspect starts to tell us why an event occurred, this information is out of the boundaries of our question, which should be “What happened?”)

5....he said...

(The word said is a soft form of communication. To be totally committed to the idea expressed here, the word said should be followed by a direct quote, e.g., “You going with me.”)

6....and i guess...

(Aside from the lowercase I, saying "I guess” is noncommittal and can be an indication of deception. If a gun was pointed would you say, "He showed her a gun” or would you say, “I guess he showed her a gun"? )

...he showed her a gun...

7....and his two other friends grab me like...

(The word like is an indication that a difference exists between what the assailants did and what she says they did. Think about it: why not just say, "His two friends grabbed me"? Adding the word like tells us that the assailants did something like grabbing her, but it was different than that.)

8....and said...

(Again, the word said is a soft form of communication and to be totally committed, it should be followed by a quote such as “You going.” )

9...they said...

(Again, the word “said” is a soft form of communication and should be followed by a quote. This is not a quote and is therefore not totally believable.)

... they had a gun ...

NOTE: The writer doesn’t have to use perfect grammar and punctuation. She doesn't need to actually insert the quotation marks in her statement. However, during the markup stage of her statement, you should be able to add the quotation marks without otherwise adding to the statement. Moreover, and as in this case, the quotation marks should be appropriate for the context. In this statement, quotation marks would have been correctly placed 3 out of 4 times. It’s the third time that we will use during our interview to get our confession

10....when we...

(Though this topic will be covered more as this course continues, I’ll briefly explain that victims of violent crimes will rarely -- if ever -- use the pronoun we to link themselves and the suspect. If there is an inappropriately placed we in the statement linking the victim to perpetrator, you can almost always count on the statement as being false. I say "almost" for one reason: there are rare cases, as with this one, where you’ll need to follow up to establish to whom the writer is referring when she says "we." Does "we" mean Kalia and the writer, or the writer, Kalia, and the kidnappers?)

11...got to the motel...

(The definite article "the" indicates prior knowledge of the noun that follows it. Here, its use is odd because it would seem to indicate the writer would have had prior knowledge of "the motel." In itself, this may not seem odd, but in this context, it is very odd indeed. Here, it seems as if the motel were a predetermined destination. How often to you think kidnappers would discuss with their captives exactly where they would be taken them?)

...i was crying...

12....they was just standing around and one of the men’s said...

(I don’t want to beat a dead horse but once again, the word said is a soft form of communication and to be totally committed, it should be followed by a direct quote such as “man let’s take them home cause she keeps on crying and I don’t want to get in trouble.”)

13....and they let us off back...

(The word back in this context is an indication of a return, and if for no other reason, the word back serves as verification that the witness and Kalia were really picked up at Lexington Market. This is very useful information because, during the interview process, it is often helpful to tell interviewees what you know actually happened and what you know didn’t happen. Accuracy here can become almost frightening to the interviewee.)

...at Lexington Market.

The Missing Pronoun “I” or “WE” to begin a statement

Arrived at 1803 Pennsylvania Ave. Murray’s Steaks at approximately 7:00 am went to Truck to get Murray’s driver, to help with lifting the gate. Me and Mike truck driver lift gate went into the store. Turned alarm off went into the office, signed on the computer open safe took cash drawer out of safe placed drawer up top in cash drawer space. Left office with two seals for truck signed paperwork, went to talk to Mike at the front door. Two guys, came up as approached Mike and me and said you know what this is and started pushing Mike towards the back of the store. The light skinned guy shoved me towards the back of the store. Mike fell into a rack of merchandise, they grab him and shoved him. They were cussing pointing their guns they laid Mike on the floor the light-skinned took me back to the office had me give him the money from the cash drawer and the one's quarter nickel’s from the safe. Took me back in the back where Mike was and taped m layed me d told me to lie on the floor and taped my hands behind my back. Mike brought free and he called police

Notice the absence of the pronoun “I” at the beginning of the statement. This could be a missing “I”… or it could be a missing “WE”. In either case, it needs to be investigated, as it is a sign that the writer is withholding information. You might also have noticed that the word “WE” doesn’t appear at all in the statement. This is also odd because in abduction, robbery, hostage situations victims usually try to form allies with each other. It is a kind of a survival instinct. In this case, the writer should have paired up with Mike. She didn’t and that should raise questions.

A Missing Pronoun “He”

Around 5:00 am / 5:30 am I, John A. Woods Jr., was in the process of giving my son, John A. Woods III, his scheduled feeding. During this feeding, he bucked & fell approx. 2ft. to the floor, hitting his head on the floor. His body landed head first; I attempted to catch him but was unsuccessful. When I picked him up he cried for about 90 sec. then started to gag. His eyes were glazed. I immediately called 911

Missing Pronoun “His body landed” vs. “He landed”

Around 5 am / 5:30 am I, John A. Woods Jr. was in the process of giving my son, John A. Woods III, his scheduled feeding. During this ( = closeness ) feeding he bucked & fell approx. 2ft. to the floor hitting his head on the floor. His body (“his body landed” could be an indication that the writer knew or suspected that the baby was no longer living before, the baby fell, and that the fall could have been staged) landed head first, I attempted to catch him but was unsuccessful. When I picked him up he cried for about 90 sec. then started ( = incomplete act ) to gag his eyes were glazed. I immediately called 911

Further investigation of this case revealed that the father had injured his son and staged the fall to cover an assault

The pronoun “I” vs. “We”

Because using first-person, singular is the NORM for truthful statements, investigators need to look for a lack of the pronoun "I" and overuse of the pronoun "WE," which is first person, plural.

There are five ways to run away from commitment in a statement by avoiding the pronoun “I”. They are by using:

1. “We”

2. “You”

3. “He” or “Writer’s Own Name” - third person

4. Passive language/voice ( it happened, “the ball was thrown” )

5. Omitting the pronoun “I”

The following is an example of a statement written using; the missing “I," the missing "he," and passive voice:

On Charles St. had my windows down and a gun was pointed on my neck, told me to get over, drove me to Cherry Hill, in Cherry Hill we stopped several times asked for Tony or Bam-Bam, the last place he stopped was on a corner in Cherry Hill at a Church called Christ Temple I think it was on Cherry Hill Rd. he said have you had a gun pulled out on you before or held up with a gun or something like that, took me to the end of one street I thought he was going to shoot me told me to get out don't look back. I got out of the car and seen my car drove off. I walked to a house and someone at the house called the cops. They wouldn't let me in, they called the cops for me, I ran down the street and waited 25 minutes for the cops, the cop would know the street. Officer turned down this one street and went to the house and asked about Keith they said they knew him but he didn't live there.

Marked up, you can see the missing “I,” missing “he,” and the passive voice:

On Charles St. (Missing “I” as in “I had my window…) had my windows down and a gun was pointed (passive voice “and a gun was pointed…”) on my neck, told me to get over, (passive voice/missing pronoun, as in he “told me to get over”) drove me to Cherry Hill, ( passive voice/missing pronoun, as in he “drove me to Cherry Hill”) in Cherry Hill WE stopped several times…

Note: We’ll cover the pronoun “we” in our next lesson.

The following version of a teenager's account when asked to relate what he did on Saturday evening illustrates the NORM:

"I met four friends at the movie theater, watched a movie, then stopped to get something to eat with them. We had a few drinks at the bar on the way home. I stayed until just after midnight. I drove home...."

The same statement, with pronouns, marked:

I met four friends at the movie theater, watched a movie, then stopped to get something to eat with them. WE had a few drinks at the bar on the way home. I stayed until just after midnight. I drove home....

The next version of the same account, when compared to the aforementioned statement, indicates a deviation from the NORM:

"We all met at the movie theater, watched a movie, then stopped to get something to eat. We had a few drinks at the bar on the way home. We stayed until just after midnight. We each drove home...."

Marked-up version:

WE all met at the movie theater, watched a movie, then stopped to get something to eat. WE had a few drinks at the bar on the way home. WE stayed until just after midnight. WE each drove home...."

Because the second statement contains only "WE" instead of the expected NORM using mostly "I," the investigator should wonder why there is no individual involvement. Perhaps the teenager hopes to conceal something he did, by running away from the pronoun “I." It is, at the very least, an attempt to avoid sole responsibility for some act.

Your first assignment,

The original complete version of this statement has over 1400 words, so I will be kind, and give you only the part of the statement that concerns “introductions”. I want you to find the people listed in the statement, and from their introductions tell me who is the most important person in the statement.

Clue: “The Order of Appearance” vs. “The Proper Social Introduction”

As a bonus: See if you can find anything else in the statement that might support your observations.

Previously you and I talked about my wife, and our problem, that I file an emergency petition on Ann I still can't! Not because of love, but I don't want this to turn into a fight with her sisters, about me being a threat or mentally unstable. The part I left out is that during a weekend of H-days for Ann and me, sometime between the last vacation In July 00 and before the vacation in August 00. I was sitting in my son's bedroom on the bed, with him. He was playing his play station, and I was watching him play. Ann was in our bedroom laying in bed, supposedly watching TV. Betty, my twelve-year-old stepdaughter, was in her bedroom. Betty came out of her room wearing her sleepwear. This is a T-shirt and panties. I saw Betty go into the bedroom with Ann and sit half on the bed. From this angle I can see her, but not Ann. After some time sitting on the bunk bed bent over, I stood to stretch. From this I could see Betty from the waist down, still sitting on the bed, with her right leg underneath her like the figure 4. Just then I saw Betty take her right hand, and place it between her legs and began rubbing herself real fast. I thought to myself, Ann must be sleep. As I walked into the hallway I could see that Betty was laying on her left side, with her left hand, and face between Ann's legs. Ann had on a T-shirt but no underwear. Betty was Performing oral sex on Ann. I went back into my son's room and sat back down on the bed. I look again into the room and observed Ann holding out her right hand to Betty, who took it and moved to the top of the bed with Ann, out of my sight. Afterward, Ann came out of the room and went downstairs to the kitchen. I followed her. Ann is still wearing the white T-shirt and now has on blue shorts, that have pockets on both sides of the legs. I confronted her about what I saw with her and Betty. She immediately went into this innocent ask where I am accusing her of something with her daughter.

Email your answer to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Put day one in the notes

You have reached the end of Day 1. It is at this time that I ask if you have any questions to please email them to me at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Arrangements can be made if you want the FAST macro early. Though it is advised that you wait. 

Regardless of what the instructions might say, Email all of your answers to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. put “Day 1, Day 2, Day 3, Day 4 or Day 5”  in the subject box,  


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